Collection Records (collection + record)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The value of georeferenced collection records for predicting patterns of mosquito species richness and endemism in the Neotropics

Abstract 1.,Determining large-scale distribution patterns for mosquitoes could advance knowledge of global mosquito biogeography and inform decisions about where mosquito inventory needs are greatest. 2.,Over 43 000 georeferenced records are presented of identified and vouchered mosquitoes from collections undertaken between 1899 and 1982, from 1853 locations in 42 countries throughout the Neotropics. Of 492 species in the data set, 23% were only recorded from one location, and Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann is the most common species. 3.,A linear log,log species,area relationship was found for mosquito species number and country area. Chile had the lowest relative density of species and Trinidad-Tobago the highest, followed by Panama and French Guiana. 4.,The potential distribution of species was predicted using an Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) approach. Anopheles species had the largest predicted species ranges, whereas species of Deinocerites and Wyeomyia had the smallest. 5.,Species richness was estimated for 1 grids and by summing predicted presence of species from ENM. These methods both showed areas of high species richness in French Guiana, Panama, Trinidad-Tobago, and Colombia. Potential hotspots in endemicity included unsampled areas in Panama, French Guiana, Colombia, Belize, Venezuela, and Brazil. 6.,Argentina, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, Cuba, and Peru were the most under-represented countries in the database compared with known country species occurrence data. Analysis of species accumulation curves suggested patchiness in the distribution of data points, which may affect estimates of species richness. 7.,The data set is a first step towards the development of a global-scale repository of georeferenced mosquito collection records. [source]

What is the nature of the emergence phenomenon when using intravenous or intramuscular ketamine for paediatric procedural sedation?

Greg Treston
Abstract Objective: Ketamine has become the drug most favoured by emergency physicians for sedation of children in the ED. Some emergency physicians do not use ketamine for paediatric procedural sedation (PPS) because of concern about emergence delirium on recovery. The present study set out to determine the true incidence and nature of this phenomenon. Methods: Prospective data relating to any emergence agitation, crying, hallucinations, dreams, altered perceptions, delirium and necessary interventions were recorded in consecutive cases of ketamine PPS from March 2002 to June 2007, and analysed. Standard inclusion and exclusion criteria for the use of ketamine were followed. Results: A total of 745 prospective data collection records were available for analysis over the 5 year period. Of all, 93 (12.5%) children cried on awakening when recovering from PPS, 291 (39%) experienced pleasant altered perceptions and 16 (2.1%) experienced what was called ,emergence delirium'. None required any active treatment and all except one settled within 20 min. There was no evidence of an increased rate of nightmares on telephone follow up in the weeks post procedure. Conclusion: The belief that ketamine, in the doses used for ED PPS, causes frequent emergence delirium is flawed. A pleasant emergence phenomenon is common, but is not distressing for the child, and has no long-term (up to 30 days) negative sequelae. Rarely, there is anxiety or distress on awakening from ketamine sedation, which settles spontaneously. This should not deter emergency physicians from using ketamine for PPS. [source]

Review of the genus Leucophenga Mik (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in India, with descriptions of five new species from northern India

Rajendra S. FARTYAL
Abstract A review of all Indian Leucophenga species is given, including descriptions of five new species: L. champawatensis, L. chaubattiaensis, L. kumaonensis, L. nainae and L. neointerrupta. New collection records of some species from India and adjacent countries; namely, Myanmar and China, and distribution range of each species within India are also given. Keys to species groups and species occurring in India are provided. [source]

Latitudinal trends in foliar oils of eucalypts: Environmental correlates and diversity of chrysomelid leaf-beetles

Abstract Eucalypts are characterized by their oleaginous foliage, yet no one has considered the universality of oil expression or its ecological associations and implications for biodiversity. Published literature on the oils of 66 eucalypts was combined with geographic distribution information contained in the Australian National Herbarium (ANHSIR) database to investigate continent-scale changes in oil yield and composition. The exposure to fire and rainfall of each eucalypt was considered in reference to Walker's data on fire frequency and Australian Bureau of Meteorology 97-year records of rainfall variability. Host collection records for 69 species of chrysomelid leaf-beetle were collated from entomologists to consider patterns of association with a subset of 16 eucalypts. Eucalypts endemic to the seasonally arid, sub-tropical to tropical climates of northern Australia have less oleaginous and aromatic leaves than species endemic to the mesic, temperate climates of the southern parts of the continent. Maximum oil yield and the concentrations of cineole and pinene were positively correlated with minimum fire interval but not with rainfall variability. Low oil contents in more northerly distributed species may facilitate persistence in highly fire-prone habitats. There were no patterns in the diversity of chrysomelid leaf-beetles with either the oil yield or the concentrations of 1,8-cineole or ,-pinene in their hosts. When taken in consideration with the apparent strategy of eucalypts to tolerate insect herbivory, current evidence augurs against high concentrations of cineole or pinene acting alone as antibiotic plant secondary metabolites. [source]

Potential distribution of the Asian disease vector Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia and New Zealand: a prediction based on climate suitability

Craig R Williams
Abstract,Culex gelidus has a wide distribution throughout Asia, where it is a vector of Japanese encephalitis. It was first detected in Australia in 1999, with archived material revealing an introduction sometime prior to 1994. It is currently widely distributed throughout northern and particularly north-eastern Australia. Using climate matching software (CLIMEX Version 1.1) and the known distribution of Cx. gelidus throughout Asia, a predicted distribution for Australasia based on current climate was developed. A potentially wide distribution throughout coastal Australia, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, was revealed. Few inland locations were suitable, except in tropical areas of the Northern Territory and Queensland. The predicted distribution presented here is concordant with most recent collection records of Cx. gelidus in Australasia. However, there are a small number of exceptions which highlight some of the limitations of this approach for predicting mosquito distributions. The presence of Cx. gelidus in a large artificial swamp in Alice Springs is one such example. The predicted Cx. gelidus distribution incorporates highly populated areas, in which people may experience an increased risk of mosquito-borne viral encephalitis should this mosquito spread throughout its entire predicted range. [source]