Cognitive Failures (cognitive + failure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Days to criterion as an indicator of toxicity associated with human Alzheimer amyloid-, oligomers

Sam Gandy MD
Objective Recent evidence suggests that high molecular weight soluble oligomeric A, (oA,) assemblies (also known as A,-derived diffusible ligands, or ADDLs) may represent a primary neurotoxic basis for cognitive failure in Alzheimer disease (AD). To date, most in vivo studies of oA,/ADDLs have involved injection of assemblies purified from the cerebrospinal fluid of human subjects with AD or from the conditioned media of A,-secreting cells into experimental animals. We sought to study the bioactivities of endogenously formed oA,/ADDLs generated in situ from the physiological processing of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenitin1 (PS1) transgenes. Methods We produced and histologically characterized single transgenic mice overexpressing APPE693Q or APPE693Q X PS1,E9 bigenic mice. APPE693Q mice were studied in the Morris water maze (MWM) task at 6 and 12 months of age. Following the second MWM evaluation, mice were sacrificed, and brains were assayed for A,total, A,40, A,42, and oA,/ADDLs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and were also histologically examined. Based on results from the oA,/ADDL ELISA, we assigned individual APPE693Q mice to either an undetectable oA,/ADDLs group or a readily detectable oA,/ADDLs group. A days to criterion (DTC) analysis was used to determine delays in acquisition of the MWM task. Results Both single transgenic and bigenic mice developed intraneuronal accumulation of APP/A,, although only APPE693Q X PS1,9 bigenic mice developed amyloid plaques. The APPE693Q mice did not develop amyloid plaques at any age studied, up to 30 months. APPE693Q mice were tested for spatial learning and memory, and only 12-month-old APPE693Q mice with readily detectable oA,/ADDLs displayed a significant delay in acquisition of the MWM task when compared to nontransgenic littermates. Interpretation These data suggest that cerebral oA,/ADDL assemblies generated in brain in situ from human APP transgenes may be associated with cognitive impairment. We propose that a DTC analysis may be a sensitive method for assessing the cognitive impact in mice of endogenously generated oligomeric human A, assemblies. ANN NEUROL 2010 [source]

The illusion of group productivity: a reduction of failures explanation

Bernard A. Nijstad
It has consistently been found that people produce more ideas when working alone as compared to when working in a group. Yet, people generally believe that group brainstorming is more effective than individual brainstorming. Further, group members are more satisfied with their performance than individuals, whereas they have generated fewer ideas. We argue that this ,illusion of group productivity' is partly due to a reduction of cognitive failures (instances in which someone is unable to generate ideas) in a group setting. Three studies support that explanation, showing that: (1) group interaction leads to a reduction of experienced failures and that failures mediate the effect of setting on satisfaction; and (2) manipulations that affect failures also affect satisfaction ratings. Implications for group work are discussed. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Caffeine, cognitive failures and health in a non-working community sample

Andrew P Smith
Abstract Rationale Most studies of the effects of caffeine on performance have been conducted in the laboratory and further information is required on the real-life effects of caffeine consumption on cognition. In addition, possible effects of caffeine consumption on a range of health outcomes should also be assessed in these studies to enable cost-benefit analyses to be conducted. Objectives Secondary analyses of a large epidemiological database (N,=,3223 non-working participants, 57% female, with a mean age of 49.6 years, range 17,92 years) were conducted to examine associations between caffeine consumption (mean caffeine consumption was 140,mg/day, range 0,1800,mg) and cognitive failures (errors of memory, attention and action) in a non-working sample. Associations between caffeine consumption and physical and mental health problems were also examined. Methods The study involved secondary analyses of a database formed by combining the Bristol Stress and Health at Work and Cardiff Health and Safety at Work studies. Associations between caffeine consumption and frequency of cognitive failures and health outcomes were examined in a sample of non-workers. Results After controlling for possible confounding factors significant associations between caffeine consumption and fewer cognitive failures were observed. Initial analyses suggested that many health variables were associated with regular level of caffeine consumption. However, most of the significant effects of caffeine disappeared when demographic and lifestyle factors were controlled for. Consumption of caffeine was, however, associated with a reduced risk of depression. These effects were also observed in separate analyses examining the source of the caffeine (coffee and tea). Conclusions Overall, the results show that caffeine consumption may benefit cognitive functioning in a non-working population. This confirms earlier findings from working samples. This beneficial effect of caffeine was not associated with negative health consequences. Indeed, consumption of caffeine was found to be associated with a reduced risk of depression. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Women's perceptions of chemotherapy-induced cognitive side affects on work ability: a focus group study

Fehmidah Munir
Aims and objectives., To investigate women's awareness of chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes, their perception of cognitive limitations in carrying out daily tasks and subsequent return to work decisions and perceptions of work ability. Background., Evidence suggests that women diagnosed with breast cancer experience cognitive changes as a consequence of chemotherapy treatment. Although these changes tend to be subtle deficits in memory, concentration and the ability to organise information, there has been no published research identifying how they can impact patient's ability to work and subsequent employment decisions. Design., This was a qualitative study. Method., Data were collected from breast cancer survivors using semi-structured interviews with two focus groups (n = 6, n = 7). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using template analysis. Results., Data were categorised into four main themes: (1) awareness of cognitive changes during and following chemotherapy, (2) cognitive ability and confidence in return to work, (3) impact of cognitive changes on work ability and (4) information on the cognitive side effects of chemotherapy. Conclusions., The views and experiences of breast cancer survivors towards returning to work and subsequent work ability were affected by chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. More specifically the appraisal of returning to work and ability to manage work were influenced by three interrelated factors: (1) actual cognitive ability following chemotherapy, (2) awareness of cognitive failures by the women and their families and (3) the subsequent impact on their confidence in carrying out daily tasks including work tasks. Relevance to clinical practice., More information and support is needed to help patients with cancer to manage chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments in home and workplace. Nurses are increasingly asked about the impact of cancer and its treatment on work and are therefore well positioned to offer this advice. Subsequently, nurses require additional knowledge and guidance to provide this information and support. [source]