Cluster Sampling Technique (cluster + sampling_technique)

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Selected Abstracts


Prevalence and projections of diabetes and pre-diabetes in adults in Sri Lanka,Sri Lanka Diabetes, Cardiovascular Study (SLDCS)

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2008
P. Katulanda
Abstract Aims To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) in adults in Sri Lanka. Projections for the year 2030 and factors associated with diabetes and pre-diabetes are also presented. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged , 18 years was selected by a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Fasting plasma glucose was tested in all participants and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in non-diabetic subjects. Prevalence was estimated for those > 20 years of age. Results Response rate was 91% (n = 4532), males 40%, age 46.1 15.1 years (mean standard deviation). The age,sex standardized prevalence (95% confidence interval) of diabetes for Sri Lankans aged , 20 years was 10.3% (9.4,11.2%) [males 9.8% (8.4,11.2%), females 10.9% (9.7,12.1%), P = 0.129). Thirty-six per cent (31.9,40.1%) of all diabetic subjects were previously undiagnosed. Diabetes prevalence was higher in the urban population compared with rural [16.4% (13.8,19.0%) vs. 8.7% (7.8,9.6%); P < 0.001]. The prevalence of overall, urban and rural pre-diabetes was 11.5% (10.5,12.5%), 13.6% (11.2,16.0%) and 11.0% (10.0,12.0%), respectively. Overall, 21.8% (20.5,23.1%) had some form of dysglycaemia. The projected diabetes prevalence for the year 2030 is 13.9%. Those with diabetes and pre-diabetes compared with normal glucose tolerance were older, physically inactive, frequently lived in urban areas and had a family history of diabetes. They had higher body mass index, waist circumference, waist,hip ratio, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Insulin was prescribed to 4.4% (2.7,6.1%) of all diabetic subjects. Conclusions One in five adults in Sri Lanka has either diabetes or pre-diabetes and one-third of those with diabetes are undiagnosed. [source]


The Use of Cluster Sampling to Determine Aid Needs in Grozny, Chechnya in 1995

DISASTERS, Issue 3 2000
Sean Drysdale
War broke out in Chechnya in November 1994 following a three-year economic blockade. It caused widespread destruction in the capital Grozny. In April 1995 Medical Relief International - or Merlin, a British medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) - began a programme to provide medical supplies, support health centres, control communicable disease and promote preventive health-care in Grozny. In July 1995 the agency undertook a city-wide needs assessment using a modification of the cluster sampling technique developed by the Expanded Programme on Immunisation. This showed that most people had enough drinking-water, food and fuel but that provision of medical care was inadequate. The survey allowed Merlin to redirect resources earmarked for a clean water programme towards health education and improving primary health-care services. It also showed that rapid assessment by a statistically satisfactory method is both possible and useful in such a situation. [source]


Dental caries and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 6 2005
J. DAVID
Summary Objectives. The aims of the present study were to describe the dental health status of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, and to identify sociodemographic factors, oral health behaviours, attitudes and knowledge related to dental caries experience. Methods. The study took the form of a cross-sectional survey of 838 children in upper primary schools. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used. Dental caries was measured using World Health Organization criteria. Sociodemographic factors, oral health behaviours, attitudes and knowledge were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Results. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition was 27%. The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth was 05 (SD = 09). The decayed component (D) constituted 91% of the total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children had a higher risk of having dental caries if they lived in urban area [OR = 15, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11,21], had visited a dentist (OR = 16, 95% CI = 12,22), did not use a toothbrush (OR = 19, 95% CI = 12,29), consumed sweets (OR = 14, 95% CI = 10,19) or performed poorly in school (OR = 17, 95% CI = 10,23). Conclusions. The prevalence of caries in this sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren was low compared to that in other developing countries. The present study indicated that urban living conditions were associated with more dental caries. Since urbanization is rapid in India, oral health promotion at the present time would be valuable to prevent increased caries prevalence. [source]


Prevalence and impact of oral pain in 8-year-old children in Sri Lanka

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 2 2005
N. RATNAYAKE
Summary.,, Objective., The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of oral pain in 8-year-old Sri Lankan children and their parents. Design., A cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling technique was carried out in a sample of 614 children attending schools in the Education Division of Badulla, Uva province, Sri Lanka. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested questionnaire that was sent to each of the children and their parents. The children were also given an oral examination. Of the 614 questionnaires which were sent to parents, 30 were not returned and eight had to be excluded from the analysis because the respondents had answered only two questions. Therefore, the present analysis is limited to data from 576 children and their parents. Results., The lifetime prevalences of oral pain, as reported by the children and parents, were 49% and 53%, respectively. According to the children's report, 25% had experienced oral pain in the past 2 months while 31% of the parents reported that their child had experienced oral pain within the same period. Of those children who reported that they had experienced oral pain in the past 2 months, nearly 45% stated that the pain was severe. In 48%, the pain was triggered when biting. ,Presence of cavity/decayed tooth' was cited as the most common cause of oral pain (67%). Overall, 74% of children had experienced a negative impact as a result of the pain whilst 66% of the parents said that the child's pain had had an impact on them. Ethnic group, parental income and level of education, and the caries experience of the child were significantly associated with the reporting of oral pain in the past 2 months. Conclusions., The prevalence of oral pain was high among these children, and had a considerable impact on both the children and their parents. [source]