Central Incisors (central + incisor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Central Incisors

  • maxillary central incisor
  • maxillary right central incisor
  • permanent central incisor
  • right central incisor
  • upper central incisor

  • Selected Abstracts

    Dilaceration of maxillary central incisor: a literature review

    Nikolaos Topouzelis
    In early developmental stages, the permanent tooth germ of the maxillary incisor is situated palatally and superiorly to the apex of the primary incisor and gradually changes direction in a labial direction with its crown coming closer to the resorbing primary root. For reasons of this close relationship between the permanent tooth germ and the apex of the primary incisor, it is believed that an acute trauma to the primary predecessor can cause dilaceration of the long axis of the permanent successor. Clinically, dilaceration can be revealed by palpation high in the labial sulcus or in the hard palate, while its radiographic view is characteristic. The therapeutic approach to the dilacerated maxillary central incisors has to be carefully planned and needs the cooperation of several specialities to attain the final objective. [source]

    Surgical repositioning of a traumatically intruded permanent incisor in a patient with rheumatic fever: case report

    Rosana Sales Dias
    However, it is one of the most severe types of dentoalveolar trauma. By definition, intrusive luxation consists of the axial displacement of the tooth into the alveolar bone, accompanied by comminution or fracture of the alveolar bone. Here we report the treatment management of a traumatically intruded immature permanent central incisor by surgical repositioning undertaken in a 10-year-old child with rheumatic fever 10 days after sustaining a severe dentoalveolar trauma. The intraoral examination showed the complete intrusion of the permanent maxillary right central incisor and the radiographic examination revealed incomplete root formation. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was prescribed and the intruded tooth was surgically repositioned and endodontically treated thereafter. The postoperative course was uneventful, with both clinically and radiographically sound conditions of the repositioned tooth up to 3 years and 2 months of follow-up. These outcomes suggest that surgical repositioning combined with proper antibiotic prophylaxis and adequate root canal therapy may be an effective treatment option in cases of severe intrusive luxations of permanent teeth with systemic involvement. [source]

    Calcific healing of a crown root fracture of a maxillary central incisor evaluated with spiral computed tomography and hounsfield units: a case report

    Suresh Nandini
    Calcific healing of a complicated oblique crown root fracture is rarely reported in literature. This article highlights the calcific healing of a traumatized maxillary central incisor with crown root fracture. This unique observation of healing following trauma was confirmed with the use of spiral computed tomography and Hounsfield units. [source]

    Replantation of an immature permanent central incisor following pre-eruptive traumatic avulsion

    Esti Davidovich
    Avulsion of a pre-eruptive left permanent maxillary incisor in a 6-year-old boy is presented. The immature tooth was replanted after rinsing with saline following 10 min dry extra-oral time. This case report describes treatment and a 2-year follow-up of the tooth. During the follow-up period, continuation of root development, pulp revascularization, and irregular dentin formation were demonstrated. The tooth is vital, functional, and esthetic. To the best of our knowledge, no such case of replantation of a pre-eruptive tooth has been reported previously. [source]

    Immediate post-traumatic upper incisor reconstruction using composite resin materials

    Vlatko Panduric
    Clinical inspection revealed a complex crown fracture of the central incisor as well as a simple horizontal fracture of the lateral incisor crown of the enamel-dentin type. Vertical fracture separated the palatal enamel wall from the rest of the lateral incisor crown. After the completion of the endodontic sanitation, root canals were prepared for prefabricated composite posts and crown reconstructions were performed with the Finger Tip Technique by using composite resin materials. The advantage of this kind of reconstruction is preservation of the hard dental crown tissue removed in case of prosthetic therapy, especially in younger patients. Reconstruction can be finished in one visit, without the need for a dental technician and laboratory. [source]

    Change in supporting tissue following loss of a permanent maxillary incisor in children

    Helen D. Rodd
    Abstract,,, Alveolar bone resorption is an inevitable consequence of tooth loss and may be detrimental to long-term dental aesthetics and function. The aim of the present study was to quantify the degree of tissue resorption following the loss of a permanent incisor in a young population. The study group comprised 11 boys and five girls who all required the extraction of a permanent maxillary central incisor due to trauma-related sequelae. Mean age at tooth loss was 10.8 years. Upper alginate impressions were taken at regular intervals following tooth loss and were cast in yellow dental stone. Study models were sectioned longitudinally through the mid-point of both the maxillary incisor socket and the contra-lateral incisor to provide a thin plaster section. Digital photographs were acquired of the edentulous (A1) and dentate (A2) surfaces of this section and image analysis software was employed to quantify the surface area of both A1 and A2. At 3 months postextraction, mean A1 was 15.7% less than mean A2. By 6 months mean A1 had further reduced and was 25.3% less than that of the corresponding dentate alveolus. However, at subsequent time intervals following tooth extraction (>6 months), tissue loss appeared to stabilise with an overall reduction in tissue area remaining at 22%. This reduction in supporting tissue area was found to be highly statistically significant (P = 0.002, anova). Furthermore, girls appeared to have an overall greater degree of tissue loss than boys (P = 0.015). Further research is indicated to explore factors influencing the degree of tissue loss following incisor extraction and the benefit of therapeutic interventions in limiting this resorption. [source]

    Replantation after extended dry storage of avulsed permanent incisors: report of a case

    Funda Kont Cobankara
    Abstract,,, A 15-year-old boy lost his maxillary right and left central incisor teeth in a bicycle accident. He was referred to our clinic 1 week after the injury. The crown-root integrities of both the teeth were not damaged. Although the teeth were stored under dry conditions for 1 week, reimplantation of the teeth was planned to retain the teeth in the mouth for as long a period as possible because of the patient's age. Following the debridement and sterilization of root surfaces in 2.5% NaOCl, root canals were prepared and filled with calcium hydroxide. Then, about 2 mm of the apexes were resected to ensure that the roots easily seated in the alveolar socket and the prepared cavities in root ends were obturated with the amalgam. The teeth were placed into their respective sockets and splinted temporarily. The root canal therapy was completed 5 weeks later. Ankylosis was observed radiographically after 10 months. The patient is now 23 years old and he is still able to use both the central incisors functionally. However, there is a pink appearance on the cervical buccal surface of left central incisor because of progressive replacement resorption. In this case, the new treatment plan is to perform a permanent restoration with dental implants following the extraction of both teeth. Even though the long-term prognosis is uncertain, this treatment technique has provided an advantage for the patient in his adolescent period by maintaining the height of alveolar bone and making the provision of an aesthetically acceptable permanent restoration at a later age possible. [source]

    Reattachment of subgingivally fractured central incisor with an open apex

    Ece Eden
    Abstract,,, A case report of a 6-year-old girl with a fractured maxillary left central incisor with an open apex is presented. The procedure used to repair the fracture included flap surgery with an intrasulcular incision and endodontic treatment. The patient was called for 3 months regular follow-up to check the root formation. At the end of 32 months just before the root was obturated by guttaperka, she fractured the same tooth. Flap surgery was repeated and the tooth was restored. The root canal was obturated with a root filling paste and guttaperka as the apex was closed. Examination 10 months after treatment revealed good periodontal health, aesthetics and normal function. [source]

    Severe periodontal damage by an ultrasonic endodontic device: a case report

    John D. Walters
    Abstract,,, Heat produced within a root canal during use of an ultrasonic instrument can be conducted through the dentin into periodontal ligament, bone and soft tissue. If severe in intensity or long in duration, it can induce damage to these tissues. This report describes a case in which an ultrasonic endodontic instrument apparently induced severe damage to alveolar bone, gingiva and nasal mucosa in a 42-year-old female. Overheating of a maxillary central incisor caused necrosis of soft tissue and bone on the facial and mesial aspects and triggered a protracted inflammatory response in the adjacent nasal cavity. To relieve the severe discomfort associated with this damage, the patient chose to have her maxillary incisors extracted and replaced by a removable partial denture. A defect in the soft tissue and bone was present at a follow-up visit 10 months after the extractions. While morbidity of this nature is rare, this case reinforces the need to maintain adequate cooling of ultrasonic instruments. [source]

    Multidisciplinary treatment approach for crown fracture and crown-root fracture , a case report

    Wilson Roberto Poi
    Abstract,,, The increased incidence of traumatic injuries to anterior teeth is a consequence of leisure activities, where the most common injuries are crown fractures. Treatment of the dental trauma is complex and requires a comprehensive and accurate diagnostic and treatment plan. It is also important to consider the biological, functional, esthetic and economic aspects, as well as the patient's desire. The purpose of this article is to report a case that shows the multidisciplinary approach required to successfully manage the rehabilitation of a maxillary central incisor with a complex crown fracture and a maxillary lateral incisor, that at first presented an oblique crown-root fracture, and after the orthodontic extrusion, suffered a more apical new crown-root fracture. [source]

    Odontoma-like malformation in a permanent maxillary central incisor subsequent to trauma to the incisor predecessor

    Paulo Nelson-Filho
    Abstract,,, This report describes a case of a patient (1 year and 8 months old) with traumatic avulsion of the maxillary right primary central incisor and morphological changes in the germ of the permanent successor. One year after the trauma, an odontoma-like malformation developed. This malformation was removed 6 years after trauma and orthodontic treatment was started. Clinical follow-up and periodic radiographs are necessary after traumatic avulsion of primary teeth to monitor possible sequelae in the permanent successor. An odontoma-like malformation requires a multidisciplinary approach. [source]

    Orthodontic extrusion of subgingivally fractured incisor before restoration.

    A case report: 3-years follow-up
    Abstract,,, Orthodontic forced eruption may be a suitable approach without risking the esthetic appearance in tooth fracture below the gingival attachment or alveolar bone crest. Extrusion of such teeth allows elevating the fracture line above the epithelial attachment and so the proper finishing margins can be prepared. Restoration after orthodontic eruption may present a more conservative treatment choice in young patients compared with the prosthetic restoration after extraction. This case describes a multidisciplinary approach using the orthodontic forced eruption facilitating the composite restoration of a fractured upper permanent central incisor. [source]

    Prevalence of crown fractures in 8,10 years old schoolchildren in Canoas, Brazil

    Maximiano Ferreira Tovo
    Abstract,,, The objective of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of children with crown fractures in permanent anterior teeth in 206 schoolchildren (104 girls and 102 boys) between the ages of 8 and 10 years, enrolled in three public schools in the city of Canoas, Brazil. The prevalence found was 17% with no significant difference between boys and girls, as well as between the ages. The most affected tooth was the maxillary central incisor, and a majority of the children showed only one affected tooth (88.6%). The types of fracture most commonly found were oblique and horizontal, and the portions of dental structures most affected were ,enamel only' and ,enamel and dentin'. Only seven children (20%) sought out dental treatment. [source]

    Complicated crown fractures , management and treatment options

    V. Aggarwal
    Abstract Aim, Complicated crown fractures involve enamel, dentine and the pulp. The incidence of complicated crown fractures ranges from 2% to 13% of all dental injuries and the most commonly involved tooth is the maxillary central incisor. Various treatment modalities are available depending upon the clinical, physiological and radiographic status of the involved tooth. The aim of this article was to discuss techniques for the management of complicated crown fractures. Summary, Management of complicated crown fractures depends upon several factors with the result that various clinical modalities have been suggested. Seven case reports of complicated crown fractures are presented and risks/benefits of the treatment plans are discussed. [source]

    Complex endodontic treatment of an immature type III dens invaginatus.

    A case report
    Abstract Aim, To report the endodontic treatment of an immature maxillary central incisor with dens invaginatus. Summary, Dens invaginatus is a rare malformation of teeth, probably resulting from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. The present case describes the complex endodontic treatment of a type III dens invaginatus in an immature maxillary central incisor with a necrotic pulp and abscess formation. The initial treatment goal was to achieve apexification of the pseudocanal root and conservative root canal treatment in the main canal. Following 1-year of treatment with calcium hydroxide dressings, radiography revealed a healing response, but no sign of a hard tissue barrier at the apex. Periapical surgery with the placement of a zinc oxide cement (IRM) root-end filling was considered successful at the 4-year follow-up. Key learning points ,,The complexity of the canal system and open apex in dens invaginatus present a challenge to endodontic treatment. ,,Correct diagnosis and treatment planning are fundamental to treatment of dens invaginatus. ,,Periapical surgery is indicated in cases of unsuccessful apexification in immature teeth with dens invaginatus and nonvital pulp. [source]

    Determination of pulp vitality in vivo with pulse oximetry

    E. Calil
    Abstract Aim, To evaluate the use of pulse oximetry as a test for pulp vitality, by comparing in the same patient, the levels of oxygen saturation of the index finger and of the maxillary central incisor and canine teeth without clinically detectable pulp inflammation. Methodology, Seventeen male and female patients aged between 26 and 38 years participated and a total of 32 maxillary central incisor and 32 canine teeth were analysed. Selection criteria required the teeth to have healthy crowns, or with restorations no more than 2 mm in diameter and no clinical and radiographical signs or symptoms of pulp or periapical inflammatory changes. The negative control group consisted of 10 root filled teeth. Measurements were first taken from the index finger of patients. Their teeth were then subjected to a thermal test with refrigerant gas and then to a vitality test with pulse oximetry. Data were analysed by Pearson's and paired t- tests. Results, There were no significant statistical correlations between blood oxygen levels in the index finger and in the teeth of the patient (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the oxygen levels between the two tooth groups studied and the index finger (P , 0.002). Mean oxygen values in the index finger of patients were 95% (SD = 1.6), oxygen values in the maxillary central incisor were 91.29% (SD = 2.61) and mean oxygen values in maxillary canine were 90.69% (SD = 2.71). Conclusion, The method determined consistently the level of blood oxygen saturation of the pulp in maxillary central incisor and canine teeth and can therefore be used for pulp vitality testing. Further studies are required to assess the effectiveness and validity of pulse oximetry in determining pulp vitality in traumatized teeth. [source]

    A finite element analysis of ferrule design on restoration resistance and distribution of stress within a root

    I. Ichim
    Abstract Aim, To analyse the effect of ferrule height upon the mechanical resistance and stress distribution within a root to explain variations in the pattern of root fracture. Methodology, An extracted, intact, caries free, maxillary right central incisor was scanned by laser and then reconstructed on a computer to produce a model of the tooth and associated periodontal ligament. A simulated post/core/crown restoration was constructed on conventional tooth preparations with various ferrules. The crown was loaded with a simulated 500 N force and the simulated displacement of components and the tensile and compressive stress within the tooth structure were recorded. Results, Without a ferrule preparation, the simulated crown tilted to the labial and rotated distally. With increasing ferrule height the displacement and rotation of the crown reduced in conventional and crown-lengthening models with maximum reduction occurring when the ferrule height reached 1.5 mm. In ferrule models, higher levels of tensile stress developed in internal (by a factor of 8) and mid-root palatal (by a factor of 90) dentine at the cervical margin of the preparation. With an increase in ferrule height, the area of tensile stress within the palatal mid-dentine expanded towards the cervical margin. Similar patterns and stress values were recorded for the crown-lengthening models. Conclusion, The study confirms that a ferrule increases the mechanical resistance of a post/core/crown restoration. However a ferrule creates a larger area of palatal dentine under tensile stress that may be a favourable condition for a crack to develop. Crown-lengthening did not alter the levels or pattern of stress within compared with conventional ferrule preparations. [source]

    Compound odontoma associated with an unerupted and dilacerated maxillary primary central incisor in a young patient

    K. H. Yeung
    Summary., The occurrence of odontoma in the primary dentition is uncommon. There are very few reports of non-eruption of a dilacerated primary tooth in the literature. A rare case of compound odontoma in association with an unerupted dilacerated maxillary primary incisor in a young patient is reported. There was also a developing supernumerary tooth in the vicinity of the odontoma. The clinical features and management of these conditions are discussed. The relevant literature is reviewed. A possible causal relationship between odontoma and dilaceration is highlighted. [source]

    Reconstruction of the maxillary midline papilla following a combined orthodontic,periodontic treatment in adult periodontal patients

    Daniele Cardaropoli
    Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of a combined orthodontic,periodontic treatment in determining the reconstruction of midline papilla lost following periodontitis. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients, with infrabony defect and extrusion of one maxillary central incisor, were treated. At baseline, all patients presented opening of the interdental diastema and loss of the papilla. At 7,10 days after open-flap surgery, the intrusive movement started. For each patient, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and papilla presence index (PI) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment and after 1 year. PI was also evaluated independently in patients with narrow or wide periodontal biotype (NPB,WPB). Results: All parameters showed statistical improvement between the initial and final measurements, and showed no changes at follow-up time. The mean residual PPD was 2.50 mm, with a decrease of 4.29 mm, while the mean CAL gain was 5.93 mm. Twenty-three out of 28 patients improved the PI score at the end of therapy. No statistical difference was recorded in PI values between groups NPB and WPB. Conclusion: The presented clinical protocol resulted in the improvement of all parameters examined. At the end of orthodontic treatment, a predictable reconstruction of the interdental papilla was reported, both in patients with thin or wide gingiva. [source]

    Spectrophotometric Analysis of Tooth Color Reproduction on Anterior All-Ceramic Crowns: Part 2: Color Reproduction and Its Transfer from In Vitro to In Vivo

    ABSTRACT Color reproduction of an anterior tooth requires advanced laboratory techniques, talent, and artistic skills. Color matching in a laboratory requires the successful transfer from in vivo with careful considerations. The purpose of this study was to monitor and verify the color reproduction process for an anterior all-ceramic crown in a laboratory through spectrophotometric measurements. Furthermore, a crown insertion process using composite luting cements was assessed, and the final color match was measured and confirmed. An all-ceramic crown with a zirconia ceramic coping for the maxillary right central incisor was fabricated. There was a significant color difference between the prepared tooth and the die material. The die material selected was the closest match available. The ceramic coping filled with die material indicated a large color difference from the target tooth in both lightness and chromaticity. During the first bake, three different approaches were intentionally used corresponding with three different tooth regions (cervical, body, and incisal). The first bake created the fundamental color of the crown that allowed some color shifts in the enamel layer, which was added later. The color of the completed crown demonstrated an excellent color match, with ,E 1.27 in the incisal and 1.71 in the body. In the cervical area, color match with ,E 2.37 was fabricated with the expectation of a color effect from the underlying prepared tooth. The optimal use of composite luting cement adjusted the effect from the underlying prepared tooth color, and the color match fabricated at a laboratory was successfully transferred to the clinical setting. The precise color measurement system leads to an accurate verification of color reproduction and its transfer. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The use of a dedicated dental spectrophotometer during the fabrication of an all-ceramic crown allows the dentist and the laboratory technician to accurately communicate important information to one another about the shade of the tooth preparation, the shade of the contralateral target tooth, and the influence of luting cement on the final restoration, thereby allowing the technician better control over the outcome of their tooth color matching efforts and the final color match of an all-ceramic restoration. (J Esthet Restor Dent 22:53,65, 2010) [source]

    Correlation between the Individual and the Combined Width of the Six Maxillary Anterior Teeth

    ABSTRACT Purpose:, There is a consensus in the community of dental research that the selection of undersized artificial maxillary anterior teeth offers an unnatural appearance to the denture. Several methods to select the adequate width of these teeth are of questionable validity, and many dentures have an obviously artificial appearance. This article assessed the relationship between the individual and the combined width of maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods:, Impressions were made of the anterior dentition of 69 dentate undergraduate students with rubber impression silicon, and casts were formed. The individual widths of the maxillary anterior teeth were measured by using a digital caliper (SC-6 digital caliper, Mitutoyo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), and the combined width was registered by both adding the individual width and using a flexible millimeter ruler. Results:, Student's t -test showed significant differences between the analogous teeth and different sides of the maxillary dental arch (p = 0.001), with the exception of the central incisor (p = 0.984). Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient showed significant positive correlation between all the measurements compared (p = 0.000). Linear regression analysis concluded three mathematical equations to obtain the individual tooth width after measuring the combined width of the six maxillary anterior teeth by using a flexible millimeter ruler. Conclusions:, The individual tooth width can be determined if the combined width of the maxillary anterior teeth is obtained by using a flexible millimeter ruler. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The adequate selection of each maxillary anterior tooth width can offer variance and individuality to the denture, particularly for partially dentate patients. By offering an adequate tooth-to-tooth relationship, the esthetic result of the oral rehabilitation treatment can be improved. [source]

    Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of the Maxillary Anterior Dentition

    ABSTRACT Purpose:, The location of the gingival zenith in a medial-lateral position relative to the vertical tooth axis of the maxillary anterior teeth remains to be clearly defined. In addition, the apex of the free gingival margin of the lateral incisor teeth relative to the gingival zeniths of the adjacent proximal teeth remains undetermined. Therefore, this investigation evaluated two clinical parameters: (1) the gingival zenith position (GZP) from the vertical bisected midline (VBM) along the long axis of each individual maxillary anterior tooth; and (2) the gingival zenith level (GZL) of the lateral incisors in an apical-coronal direction relative to the gingival line joining the tangents of the GZP of the adjacent central incisor and canine teeth under healthy conditions. Materials and Methods:, A total of 240 sites in 20 healthy patients (13 females, 7 males) with an average age of 27.7 years were evaluated. The inclusion patient criteria were absence of periodontal disease, gingival recession, or gingival hypertrophy as well as teeth without loss of interdental papillae, spacing, crowding, existing restorations, and incisal attrition. GZP dimensions were measured with calibrated digital calipers for each individual tooth and within each tooth group in a medial-lateral direction from the VBM. GZLs were measured in an apical-coronal direction from a tangent line drawn on the diagnostic casts from the GZPs of the adjacent teeth. Results:, This study demonstrated that all central incisors displayed a distal GZP from the VBM, with a mean average of 1 mm. Lateral incisors showed a deviation of the gingival zenith by a mean of 0.4 mm. In 97.5% of the canine population, the GZP was centralized along the long axis of the canine. The mean distance of the contour of the gingival margin in an apical-coronal direction of the lateral incisors (GZL) relative to gingival line joining the tangent of the adjacent central and canine GZPs was approximately 1 mm. Conclusion:, This investigation revealed a GZP mean value of 1 mm distal from the VBM for the central incisor tooth group. The lateral incisors showed a mean average of 0.4 mm. Thecanine tooth group demonstrated almost no deviations of the GZP from the VBM. The GZL of the lateral incisors relative to the adjacent central incisor and canine teeth were more coronal by approximately 1 mm. These data could be used as reference points during esthetic anterior oral rehabilitation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The information presented in this article can be clinically applied to reestablish the proper intratooth GZPs of the maxillary anterior teeth during periodontal crown lengthening or root coverage procedures. In addition, the intra-arch gingival level of the lateral incisor gingival zenith relative to the adjacent central and canine teeth can be appropriately established. [source]

    Influence of Matrix Type on Surface Roughness of Three Resins for Provisional Crowns and Fixed Partial Dentures

    Raul Ayuso-Montero DDS
    Abstract Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of matrix type on the surface roughness of resins for provisional crowns and fixed partial dentures. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens of two acrylic resins (Trim II, Tab2000) and one bis-acryl composite (Protemp II Garant) were fabricated using one of three matrices: irreversible hydrocolloid (Cavex CA37), poly(vinyl siloxane) (Aquasil) or vacuum-formed matrix (Bio-flow Hard). The sample size for each resin-matrix combination was 10. The vestibular face of one natural maxillary central incisor was used as a model to fabricate all the specimens, following the custom fabrication technique. The average roughness measurements, Ra (,m), were obtained using a profilometer, and the data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U- tests. The results were contrasted against the surface roughness of the tooth using a one-sample t- test. Results: Aquasil and vacuum-formed matrix had a smoother surface than Cavex CA37 regardless of the resin tested (p < 0.05). Protemp II Garant had the smoothest surface regardless of the matrix used, with no significant differences when polymerized against the three different matrices. Trim II polymerized against Cavex CA37 had a rougher (p < 0.05) surface than Aquasil or vacuum-formed matrix. Tab2000 had the smoothest surface (p < 0.05) when polymerized against a vacuum-formed matrix. Conclusions: There is no universal matrix that produces the smoothest surface: this depends on the compatibility between the resin and the matrix. Protemp II Garant polymerized against Cavex CA37 matrix yields a surface that is smooth enough not to require polishing unless this surface is adjusted. [source]

    The interdental gingiva, a visible guide for placement of mini-implants

    YS Chun
    Structured Abstract Authors,,, Chun YS, Lee SK, Wikesjö UME, Lim WH Objectives,,, To determine whether the tip of the interdental gingiva can serve as a visible guide for placement of mini-implants. Setting and Sample population,,, Computer tomography (CT) images from 15 males and 15 females (mean age 27 years, range: 23,35 years) were used to evaluate the distance from the tip of the interdental gingiva to the alveolar crest from the central incisor to the 1st molar. The distance from a reference point to the tip of interdental gingiva was recorded from study models using a caliper. The distance between the reference point and the alveolar crest was recorded using CT and added to the model recordings thus providing the distance from the tip of interdental gingiva to the alveolar crest for the various interdental sites. Two-way anova and Student,Newman,Keuls test for multiple comparisons were used for the statistical analysis. Results,,, There was no significant difference in the distance from the tip of interdental gingiva to the alveolar crest between maxilla and mandible. The distance between the tip of interdental gingiva and the alveolar crest at the central/lateral incisors was the shortest compared with that of other sites. There was also a statistically significant difference between the male and female groups except for the maxillary 2nd premolar/1st molar interradicular site. Conclusion,,, The tip of interdental gingiva appears a reasonable visual guide for the placement of mini-implants for orthodontic anchorage. [source]

    Primary tooth emergence in Australian children: timing, sequence and patterns of asymmetry

    S Woodroffe
    Abstract Background:, Information on the timing and sequence of human tooth emergence is valuable when analysing human growth and development, predicting the age of individuals, and for understanding the effects of genetic and environmental influences on growth processes. This paper provides updated data on the timing and sequence of primary tooth emergence in Australian children for both clinicians and researchers. Methods:, Twins were recruited from around Australia with data collected through parental recording of twins' primary tooth emergence. One twin from each pair was then randomly selected to enable the calculation of descriptive statistics for timing, sequence and asymmetry in tooth emergence. Results:, The first and last primary teeth emerged, on average, at 8.6 months and 27.9 months, respectively, with teeth emerging in the order: central incisor, lateral incisor, first molar, canine, second molar. Left-side antimeric teeth were more likely to emerge before their right-side counterparts but this was not statistically significant. At least 35% of all antimeric pairs had emerged within two weeks of each other, serving as a useful guideline for assessing symmetrical versus asymmetrical development. Conclusions:, Primary tooth emergence in Australian twins is occurring later than reported previously for Australian singletons but is consistent with findings for singletons in other ethnic groups. The most common sequence of primary tooth emergence appears to be consistent in twins and singletons and has not changed over time. [source]

    Conservative treatment of a cervical horizontal root fracture and a complicated crown fracture: a case report

    I Belobrov
    Abstract This case report describes successful long-term conservative management of a cervical root fracture and a complicated crown fracture of the maxillary central incisors in a 12-year-old patient. A mineral trioxide aggregate partial pulpotomy was performed on the maxillary right central incisor, while the maxillary left central incisor was splinted to the neighbouring lateral incisor using an acid-etch technique. Both teeth remained asymptomatic throughout the 3.5 years of a review period, with the cervical root fracture having mostly healed with the formation of a calcified tissue between the fragments. Two different treatment methods were used for two different injuries that resulted in pulp preservation in both cases. This in turn has provided for normal root development to occur while also allowing for preservation of bone. [source]

    Monozygotic twins with idiopathic internal root resorption: A case report

    Daniel Urban mudr
    Abstract This study presents the first case of internal root resorption in monozygotic twins. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of root resorption lesions. The link between interleukin (IL)-1 gene polymorphism and root resorption had been reported. However, these studies have involved external root resorption. Twin healthy 17 year old Caucasian sisters were diagnosed with internal root resorption in their upper left central incisor. Neither had a history of orofacial trauma and neither had received orthodontic treatment. The presence of IL-1,+C3953 allele is the sign of predisposed susceptibility to an exaggerated inflammatory response, including a limited feedback mechanism as a consequence of IL-1RN mutation. Most investigators agree that the listed polymorphism presents a significantly higher risk for development of pathological resorption. These were thought to be cases of true idiopathic resorption as none of the other factors related to root resorption was found. [source]

    Use of a natural tooth crown as a pontic following cervical root fracture: a case report

    Abhishek Parolia mds
    Abstract The loss of anterior teeth can be psychologically and socially damaging to the patient. Despite a wide range of treatment options available, traumatised teeth may be inevitably lost on certain occasions. This paper describes the immediate replacement of a right central incisor using a fibre-composite resin with the natural tooth crown as a pontic. The abutment teeth can be conserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible, and can be completed at chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. It can be used as an interim measure or a definitive prosthesis. [source]

    Single median maxillary central incisor: New data and mutation review

    Kênia B. El-Jaick
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Single median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare anomaly that may occur alone or associated with other conditions, frequently as part of the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. However, it has been suggested that SMMCI alone, or associated with some midline defects, may be considered a different entity from HPE (OMIM: 147250). Families with SMMCI, without HPE cases, are difficult to counsel for the risk of HPE in future generations because the same midline defects described as part of the "SMMCI syndrome" can also be part of the HPE spectrum. METHODS: We screened five cases of SMMCI for mutations in three HPE genes, SHH, TGIF, and SIX3. RESULTS: A missense mutation c.686C>T was found in the gene SIX3 of one patient, which did not differ from the accepted 20% of known HPE gene mutations among all HPE cases. Our results and an extensive literature review of gene mutations in patients with SMMCI showed that 27/28 of them were in HPE genes: SHH (n = 21), SIX3 (n = 3), TGIF (n = 1), GLI2 (n = 1), and PTCH (n = 1), and only one in the SALL4 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical findings in patients with SMMCI without HPE in families with mutations in HPE genes cannot be distinguished from the findings reported in the SMMCI syndrome. Therefore, persons with SMMCI and their relatives should be carefully investigated for related midline disorders, especially of the HPE spectrum, and all known HPE genes screened. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Measurements of Tooth Movements in Relation to Single-Implant Restorations during 16 Years: A Case Report

    Torsten Jemt LSD
    ABSTRACT Background: Osseointegrated implants behave as ankylotic abutments, and their positions are not affected by dentofacial changes. Purpose: To measure changes in occlusion in relation to single implants in one patient after more than 15 years in function. Materials and Methods: One 25-year-old female was treated with two single implants in the upper central incisor and bicuspid area after trauma. Study casts made prior to treatment (1987) and after 16 years in function (2004) were scanned by means of an optical scanner. Using the palate as the reference, the models were placed in the same coordinate system and analyzed and compared in a computer-aided design (CAD) program. The results of the measurements of the casts were also compared with clinical photographs taken at the time of treatment (1988), after 9 years (1997), and after 16 years (2004) in function. Results: The clinical photographs showed obvious signs of implant infraposition after 9 years. New crowns were made in the incisor region after 15 years (2002), but signs of infraposition were again present at the final examination (2004). Measurements of the casts indicated small tooth movements with a pattern of slight eruption of upper teeth combined with a palatal inclination, mesial drift, and lingual inclination and crowding of the lower anterior teeth. The small measured vertical eruption of the teeth was less than the observed clinical infraposition of the implant crowns, indicating that the vertical position of the palatal may have changed in relation to the implants as well. Conclusion: Obvious dentofacial changes may take place in adult patients. Teeth may adjust for this, and no major problems may arise in the dentate patient. However, because the positions of implants are not affected by dentofacial changes, other patterns of clinical problems can be seen when implant patients present with these changes. The character and frequency of these dentofacial changes that may compromise implant treatment in the long term are not yet known. [source]