Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Callus

  • fracture callus

  • Terms modified by Callus

  • callus culture
  • callus formation
  • callus induction
  • callus tissue

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    C. R. K. Reddy
    In vitro somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of somatic embryos to whole plants through micropropagules was successfully demonstrated from pigmented uniseriate filamentous callus of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in axenic cultures. More than 80% of the explants cultured on 1.5% (w/v) agar-solidified Provasoli enriched seawater (PES) medium showed callus development. The callus induction rate was consistently higher for laboratory-adapted plants. The excised callus grew well in subcultures and maintained its growth for prolonged periods if transferred to fresh medium in regular intervals. Some subcultured calli (<10%) did undergo transformation and produced densely pigmented spherical or oval-shaped micropropagules (1,5 mm in diameter) that subsequently developed into young plantlets in liquid PES medium. The micropropagule production was further improved through somatic embryogenesis by a novel method of culturing thin slices of pigmented callus with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or a mixture of NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine. Transfer of embryogenic callus along with tiny somatic embryos to liquid medium and swirling on orbital shaker facilitated rapid growth and morphogenesis of somatic embryos into micropropagules that grew into whole plants in subsequent cultivation in the sea. The daily growth rate of one tissue cultured plant was monitored for seven generations in field and found to be as high as 1.5,1.8 times over farmed plants. The prolific somatic embryogenesis together with high germination potential of somatic embryos observed in this study offers a promising tool for rapid and mass clonal production of seed stock of Kappaphycus for commercial farming. [source]

    Transcriptionally active transposable elements in recent hybrid sugarcane

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
    Paula G. de Araujo
    Summary Transposable elements (TEs) are considered to be important components of the maintenance and diversification of genomes. The recent increase in genome sequence data has created an opportunity to evaluate the impact of these active mobile elements on the evolution of plant genomes. Analysis of the sugarcane transcriptome identified 267 clones with significant similarity to previously described plant TEs. After full cDNA sequencing, 68 sugarcane TE clones were assigned to 11 families according to their best sequence alignment against a fully characterized element. Expression was further investigated through a combined study utilizing electronic Northerns, macroarray, transient and stable sugarcane transformation. Newly synthesized cDNA probes from flower, leaf roll, apical meristem and callus tissues confirm previous results. Callus was identified as the tissue with the highest number of TEs being expressed, revealing that tissue culture drastically induced the expression of different elements. No tissue-specific family was identified. Different representatives within a TE family displayed differential expression patterns, showing that each family presented expression in almost every tissue. Transformation experiments demonstrated that most Hopscotch clone-derived U3 regions are, indeed, active promoters, although under a strong transcriptional regulation. This is a large-scale study about the expression pattern of TEs and indicates that mobile genetic elements are transcriptionally active in the highly polyploid and complex sugarcane genome. [source]

    Alkaloid production in Vernonia cinerea: Callus, cell suspension and root cultures

    Priti Maheshwari
    Abstract Fast-growing callus, cell suspension and root cultures of Vernonia cinerea, a medicinal plant, were analyzed for the presence of alkaloids. Callus and root cultures were established from young leaf explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media supplemented with combinations of auxins and cytokinins, whereas cell suspension cultures were established from callus cultures. Maximum biomass of callus, cell suspension and root cultures were obtained in the medium supplemented with 1 mg/L ,-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BA), 1.0 mg/L NAA and 0.1 mg/L BA and 1.5 mg/L NAA, respectively. The 5-week-old callus cultures resulted in maximum biomass and alkaloid contents (750 ,g/g). Cell suspension growth and alkaloid contents were maximal in 20-day-old cultures and alkaloid contents were 1.15 mg/g. A 0.2-g sample of root tissue regenerated in semi-solid medium upon transfer to liquid MS medium containing 1.5 mg/L NAA regenerated a maximum increase in biomass of 6.3-fold over a period of 5 weeks. The highest root growth and alkaloid contents of 2 mg/g dry weight were obtained in 5-week-old cultures. Maximum alkaloid contents were obtained in root cultures in vitro compared to all others including the alkaloid content of in vivo obtained with aerial parts and roots (800 ,g/g and 1.2 mg/g dry weight, respectively) of V. cinerea. [source]

    Three New Podocarpane-Type Diterpenoids from Callus of Securinega suffruticosa.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 19 2006
    Wei Yuan
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Targeted gene analysis in Ulmus americana and U. pumila tissues

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    C. Nasmith
    Summary Steady-state gene expression was compared between Dutch elm disease (DED)-susceptible Ulmus americana and DED-resistant U. pumila callus, leaf midrib, root and inner bark tissues. Stress-related cDNAs including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase (CHT) and polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) were isolated and compared following RT-PCR of elm tissues. Complete CHT and partial PAL and PGIP cDNA transcripts were identified, each displaying sequence variation between elm species. These transcripts were Dig-labelled and subsequently used for northern analyses of the elm tissues. Midrib and root tissue displayed highest steady-state gene expression compared with inner bark and callus tissues. A modified nucleic acid isolation technique was necessary for downstream RNA analyses. Lithium chloride and polyvinylpyrrolidone were critical for efficient removal of polysaccharides and phenolics associated with some of the elm tissues. Steady-state gene expression is discussed in relation to the tissues investigated. The use of tissues other than in vitro callus culture more closely represents the tissues associated with the elm's vascular response to DED. [source]

    Mutualistic symbiosis between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    B. G. Zhao
    Summary Interactions between the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas were examined by cultivating axenic PWN and bacterial strains using callus of Pinus thunbergii. Ten (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas cepacia and Pseudomonas spp.) of the 29 bacterial strains tested, significantly increased the reproduction of PWN. The rest of the bacteria (19 strains of 10 species) inhibited the reproduction of PWN completely. The growth of 18 of the 29 bacterial strains tested, including the 10 strains promoting PWN reproduction, was significantly increased by the presence of PWN. It indicated a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between PWN and the 10 bacterial strains in the genus Pseudomonas. The bacterial mutualistic symbionts are organisms, which may have co-evolved with PWN rather than being accidentally associated. The finding provides further evidence for our hypothesis that pine wilt disease is complex, induced by both PWN and associated phytotoxin-producing bacteria. Résumé Les interactions entre le nématode des pins Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (PWN) et des bactéries du genre Pseudomonas ont étéétudiées en cultivant de manière axénique PWN et des souches bactériennes sur des cals de Pinusthunbergii. Dix souches bactériennes (Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, P. cepacia et Pseudomonas spp.) sur les 29 testées ont significativement augmenté la reproduction de PNW. Le reste des bactéries (19 souches de 10 espèces) ont complètement inhibé la reproduction de PNW. La croissance de 18 souches bactériennes sur 29, incluant les 10 favorisant la reproduction de PNW, a été significativement augmentée en présence de PNW. Ceci indique une relation symbiotique mutualiste entre PNW et 10 souches bactériennes du genre Pseudomonas. Les symbiontes bactériens mutualistes pourraient être des organismes ayant coévolué avec PNW plutôt qu'associés de façon fortuite. Ces observations renforcent l'hypothèse selon laquelle le flétrissement des pins est une maladie complexe induite par PWN en association avec des bactéries productrices de phytotoxines. Zusammenfassung Die Interaktionen zwischen dem Kiefernsplintholznematoden (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) und Bakterien der Gattung Pseudomonas wurden in axenischen Kulturen des Nematoden mit verschiedenen Bakterienstämmen und Kallus von Pinus thunbergii untersucht. Zehn Bakterienstämme (Pseudomonas fluoreszens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas cepacia und Pseudomonas spp.) von 29 getesteten Isolaten erhöhten die Reproduktion des PWN signifikant. Die übrigen Isolate (19 Stämme von 10 Arten) hemmten die Vermehrung des Nematoden vollständig. Das Wachstum von 18 der 29 getesteten Bakterienstämme (inkl. der 10 Stämme, welche die Vermehrung des Nematoden förderten), wurde durch die Präsenz des Nematoden signifikant erhöht. Dieser Befund deutet auf eine mutualistische Beziehung zwischen dem PWN und 10 Pseudomonas -Isolaten hin. Die mutualistischen bakteriellen Symbionten dürften sich wahrscheinlich in Coevolution mit dem Nematoden entwickelt haben. Dieser Befund unterstützt die Hypothese, dass die Kiefernwelke eine Komplexkrankheit darstellt, die sowohl durch B. xylophilus als auch die damit assoziierten phytotoxinbildenden Bakterien ausgelöst wird. [source]

    Optimization of culture conditions for plant regeneration of Panicum spp. through somatic embryogenesis

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 1 2010
    Mi-Suk Seo
    Abstract We developed a rapid and efficient shoot regeneration system for Panicum spp. by adjusting the regeneration medium and studying the responses of different genotypes and the influence of explant types (mature seed, immature embryo and shoot apex). We used Panicum meyerianum (Nees) and Panicum longijubatum (Stapf) which were shown to perform well, to select the optimal medium for shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration was obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 30 g L,1 maltose and 1 mg L,1 N-phenyl-N,-[(1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl) urea]. The callus formed green spots after 1 week of culture and showed primary green shoots after 2 weeks. In this system, the calli derived from mature seed of nine Panicum genotypes showed large variation in shoot regeneration ability: from 0 to 69.9% in the frequency of shoot formation and from 0 to 8.4 in the number of shoots per callus. Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) showed no ability and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) showed low ability to regenerate from mature seed-derived calli; however, both were able to be regenerated from immature embryos and calli derived from shoot apices. We developed an efficient protocol for high shoot regeneration of various Panicum genotypes which provides a foundation for efficient tissue culture and genetic improvement of Panicum. [source]

    Evaluation of tissue culture response from mature seeds of Panicum spp.

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Mi-Suk Seo
    Abstract The genus Panicum contains important warm-season forage grasses and species with potential as biomass crops. We selected Panicum genotypes with high response to tissue culture for genetic improvement. The highest frequency of callus induction from mature seed of Panicum maximum cultivar Natsukaze was obtained on MS medium containing 4.0 mg L,1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and solidified with 0.3% Gelrite. We compared germination frequencies and callus induction capacities among 24 genotypes of 11 Panicum species on this medium. Callus induction frequencies varied among genotypes. Those with high germination frequencies generally had high callus induction frequencies. On the other hand, especially in P. maximum, the callus induction ratio (callus induction frequency/germination frequency) depended on the reproductive mode and ploidy. The callus induction ratio of three sexual accessions of P. maximum were very low compared to apomictic accessions, and besides, a tetraploid sexual accession Noh PL1 had very low germination and callus induction frequencies. Callus induction and regeneration capacities were independent of each other. For shoot regeneration, we transferred callus derived from the 24 genotypes onto MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L,1 kinetin and 0.4% Gelrite. Six of the genotypes regenerated plantlets. Among them, Panicum meyerianum produced the highest shoot regeneration frequency of 61.6% and the maximum number of shoots callus,1 in the shortest time. The callus of P. meyerianum also showed vigorous proliferation. We thus selected high-response genotypes of P. meyerianum. [source]

    Cell proliferation and differentiation during fracture healing are influenced by locally applied IGF-I and TGF-,1: Comparison of two proliferation markers, PCNA and BrdU

    B. Wildemann
    Abstract Growth factors IGF-I and TGF-,1 are known to stimulate fracture healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of locally applied IGF-I and TGF-,1 during the early phase of fracture healing (Days 5, 10, and 15 after fracture) on cellular processes like proliferation and differentiation in a rat model. Two different immunohistochemical markers were used to analyze cell proliferation: (1) injection of the thymidine analogue BrdU and subsequent immunohistochemical staining for BrdU-positive nuclei, and (2) the antibody against the "proliferating cell nuclear antigen" (PCNA). In comparison, both methods revealed similar results concerning the types of proliferating cells at the different time points and the two groups. Labeling indices of both methods showed very good correlation (e.g., rs: 0.887 and p < 0.001 at day 10 in the control group without growth factors). Comparison of the callus morphology and the proliferation rate showed differences during fracture healing due to the local application of IGF-I and TGF-,1 from coated implants. At Day 5 the callus of the group treated with growth factors displayed an earlier appearance of cartilage compared to the control group. This was accompanied by an onset of cell proliferation in chondrocytes. Likewise, at the later time points an enhanced maturation of the callus tissue and the proliferation pattern were detectable in the growth-factor group. These results indicate that local application of IGF-I and TGF-,1 accelerates early cellular processes during fracture healing. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 65B: 150,156, 2003 [source]

    Enhanced Chondrogenesis and Wnt Signaling in PTH-Treated Fractures,

    Sanjeev Kakar
    Abstract Studies have shown that systemic PTH treatment enhanced the rate of bone repair in rodent models. However, the mechanisms through which PTH affects bone repair have not been elucidated. In these studies we show that PTH primarily enhanced the earliest stages of endochondral bone repair by increasing chondrocyte recruitment and rate of differentiation. In coordination with these cellular events, we observed an increased level of canonical Wnt-signaling in PTH-treated bones at multiple time-points across the time-course of fracture repair, supporting the conclusion that PTH responses are at least in part mediated through Wnt signaling. Introduction: Since FDA approval of PTH [PTH(1,34); Forteo] as a treatment for osteoporosis, there has been interest in its use in other musculoskeletal conditions. Fracture repair is one area in which PTH may have a significant clinical impact. Multiple animal studies have shown that systemic PTH treatment of healing fractures increased both callus volume and return of mechanical competence in models of fracture healing. Whereas the potential for PTH has been established, the mechanism(s) by which PTH produces these effects remain elusive. Materials and Methods: Closed femoral fractures were generated in 8-wk-old male C57Bl/6 mice followed by daily systemic injections of either saline (control) or 30 ,g/kg PTH(1,34) for 14 days after fracture. Bones were harvested at days 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 after fracture and analyzed at the tissue level by radiography and histomorphometry and at the molecular and biochemical levels level by RNase protection assay (RPA), real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis. Results: Quantitative ,CT analysis showed that PTH treatment induced a larger callus cross-sectional area, length, and total volume compared with controls. Molecular analysis of the expression of extracellular matrix genes associated with chondrogenesis and osteogenesis showed that PTH treated fractures displayed a 3-fold greater increase in chondrogenesis relative to osteogenesis over the course of the repair process. In addition, chondrocyte hypertrophy occurred earlier in the PTH-treated callus tissues. Analysis of the expression of potential mediators of PTH actions showed that PTH treatment significantly induced the expression of Wnts 4, 5a, 5b, and 10b and increased levels of unphosphorylated, nuclear localized ,-catenin protein, a central feature of canonical Wnt signaling. Conclusions: These results showed that the PTH-mediated enhancement of fracture repair is primarily associated with an amplification of chondrocyte recruitment and maturation in the early fracture callus. Associated with these cellular effects, we observed an increase in canonical Wnt signaling supporting the conclusion that PTH effects on bone repair are mediated at least in part through the activation of Wnt-signaling pathways. [source]

    Diminished Bone Formation During Diabetic Fracture Healing is Related to the Premature Resorption of Cartilage Associated With Increased Osteoclast Activity,

    Rayyan A Kayal
    Abstract Histological and molecular analysis of fracture healing in normal and diabetic animals showed significantly enhanced removal of cartilage in diabetic animals. Increased cartilage turnover was associated with elevated osteoclast numbers, a higher expression of genes that promote osteoclastogenesis, and diminished primary bone formation. Introduction: Diminished bone formation, an increased incidence of nonunions, and delayed fracture healing have been observed in animal models and in patients with diabetes. Fracture healing is characterized by the formation of a stabilizing callus in which cartilage is formed and then resorbed and replaced by bone. To gain insight into how diabetes affects fracture healing, studies were carried out focusing on the impact of diabetes on the transition from cartilage to bone. Materials and Methods: A low-dose treatment protocol of streptozotocin in CD-1 mice was used to induce a type 1 diabetic condition. After mice were hyperglycemic for 3 weeks, controlled closed simple transverse fractures of the tibia were induced and fixed by intramedullary pins. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibias obtained 12, 16, and 22 days after fracture was performed across the fracture callus at 0.5 mm proximal and distal increments using computer-assisted image analysis. Another group of 16-day samples were examined by ,CT. RNA was isolated from a separate set of animals, and the expression of genes that reflect the formation and removal of cartilage and bone was measured by real-time PCR. Results: Molecular analysis of collagen types II and × mRNA expression showed that cartilage formation was the same during the initial period of callus formation. Histomorphometric analysis of day 12 fracture calluses showed that callus size and cartilage area were also similar in normoglycemic and diabetic mice. In contrast, on day 16, callus size, cartilage tissue, and new bone area were 2.0-, 4.4-, and 1.5-fold larger, respectively, in the normoglycemic compared with the diabetic group (p < 0.05). Analysis of ,CT images indicated that the bone volume in the normoglycemic animals was 38% larger than in diabetic animals. There were 78% more osteoclasts in the diabetic group compared with the normoglycemic group (p < 0.05) on day 16, consistent with the reduction in cartilage. Real-time PCR showed significantly elevated levels of mRNA expression for TNF-,, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, RANKL, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A in the diabetic group. Similarly, the mRNA encoding ADAMTS 4 and 5, major aggrecanases that degrade cartilage, was also elevated in diabetic animals. Conclusions: These results suggest that impaired fracture healing in diabetes is characterized by increased rates of cartilage resorption. This premature loss of cartilage leads to a reduction in callus size and contributes to decreased bone formation and mechanical strength frequently reported in diabetic fracture healing. [source]

    Effect of Sugar and Nitrogen on the Production of Anthocyanin in Cultured Carrot (Daucus carota) cells

    M.S. Narayan
    ABSTRACT: Callus cultures of carrot, Nentes scarlet - 104 variety, were initiated on MS medium for anthocyanin production. Two anthocyanins, cayanidin-3-lathyroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside, PRESENT in the ratio of 3:1, were identified in the callus cultures. Eight sugars were tried as carbon source for the production of total anthocyanin. The sugars xylose and lactose, although they initiated growth of the green callus, did not initiate anthocyanin pigmentation. Fructose, galactose, and maltose produced less than 1.75% (dry weight basis) anthocyanin though there was growth of the pigmented callus. Glucose and sucrose produced 3.5%. It was observed that 7.5% sucrose in the medium produced maximum amount of anthocyanin (6.5%). Total nitrogen at 70 mM concentration and a 1:4 ratio of ammonium to nitrate yielded maximum cell growth and best anthocyanin production. Modifying the medium it was possible to enhance the production to 6-8%. [source]

    Construction and Application of Efficient Ac-Ds Transposon Tagging Vectors in Rice

    Shaohong Qu
    Abstract Transposons are effective mutagens alternative to T-DNA for the generation of insertional mutants in many plant species including those whose transformation is inefficient. The current strategies of transposon tagging are usually slow and labor-intensive and yield low frequency of tagged lines. We have constructed a series of transposon tagging vectors based on three approaches: (i) AcTPase controlled by glucocorticoid binding domain/VP16 acidic activation domain/Gal4 DNA-binding domain (GVG) chemical-inducible expression system; (ii) deletion of AcTPase via Cre- lox site-specific recombination that was initially triggered by Ds excision; and (iii) suppression of early transposition events in transformed rice callus through a dual-functional hygromycin resistance gene in a novel Ds element (HPT-Ds). We tested these vectors in transgenic rice and characterized the transposition events. Our results showed that these vectors are useful resources for functional genomics of rice and other crop plants. The vectors are freely available for the community. [source]

    In vitro Selection for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Gladiolus

    Idrees Ahmad Nasir
    Abstract Cormels pieces of four Fusarium susceptible Gladiolus cultivars (Friendship, Peter Pears, Victor Borge and Novalux) formed friable calli when cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing various concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. The friable calli established cell suspensions. Plantlet regeneration was obtained from the control callus, control cell suspension derived callus and in vitro selected Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. resistant cell-lines of Friendship. The in vitro cormlets showed 85,95% germination after breaking dormancy of 8 weeks at 4 °C. Cell suspensions of all four Gladiolus cultivars were found to be highly sensitive to fusaric acid. Gradual increase in fusaric acid concentrations to the cell-suspension cultures decreased cell growth considerably. One albino plant was found from the second generation of the in vitro selected cell line of Friendship. The albino plant was found to be highly susceptible to F. oxysporum. The cormlets of all in vitro selected cell lines of Friendship were inoculated with a conidial suspension of the F. oxysporum before planting and were also sprayed with the same spore suspension for further characterization when the height of plants was about 6 cm. The four selected cell lines showed the same response whether or not they were inoculated with conidia of the F. oxysporum. Plantlets of all of the selected cell lines exhibited significant growth as compared with the control after application of conidia of the F. oxysporum. [source]

    BMP-7,induced ectopic bone formation and fracture healing is impaired by systemic NSAID application in C57BL/6-mice,

    Alexander S. Spiro
    Abstract Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to potentially impair the fracture healing process. The aim of the present study was to determine if the impairment of bone healing by systemic NSAID application is, at least in part, due to an interaction of NSAIDs with the bone anabolic BMP-7 pathway. Therefore, we first analyzed fracture healing in control and diclofenac-treated mice, where we not only found a significant impairment of fracture healing due to diclofenac treatment as assessed by biomechanical testing and µCT imaging, but also found high coexpression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) within the fracture callus of both groups. To experimentally address the possible interaction between BMP-7 and COX-2, we then induced ectopic bone formation in control (n,=,10) and diclofenac-treated mice (n,=,10) by application of BMP-7 (recombinant human OP-1, rhOP-1) into the hamstring muscles. After 20 days of treatment, each ectopic bone nodule was analyzed by contact-radiography, µCT, histology, and histomorphometry. Diclofenac application decreased the trabecular number and bone mass in the ectopic bone nodules significantly due to reduced osteoblast number and activity. These data demonstrate that the bone anabolic effect of BMP-7 and fracture healing is impaired by diclofenac application, and suggest that the potential negative impact of NSAIDs on fracture healing is, at least in part, due to interference with BMP-7 signaling. © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:785,791, 2010 [source]

    Material properties are related to stress fracture callus and porosity of cortical bone tissue at affected and unaffected sites

    Rachel C. Entwistle
    Abstract Stress fractures are overuse injuries of bone that affect elite athletes and military recruits. One response of cortical bone to stress fracture is to lay down periosteal callus. The objectives of this study were to determine if material properties are different among bones with different stages of stress fracture callus, at both a callus site and at a distal site. Cortical specimens were mechanically tested to determine their stress,strain response. Material property differences were examined using nonparametric and regression analyses. At the callus site, material properties were low during the earliest stages of callus, higher with increasing callus maturity, but dropped at the late stage of callus. At the distal site, the material properties were low during early stages of callus and approached, or returned to, those of bones without callus during the late stages of callus. The effects of stress fracture and bone callus are not limited to the focal site of stress fracture. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27:1272,1279, 2009 [source]

    Differential regulation of blood vessel formation between standard and delayed bone healing

    Jasmin Lienau
    Abstract Blood vessel formation is a prerequisite for bone healing. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a delay in bone healing is associated with an altered regulation of blood vessel formation. A tibial osteotomy was performed in two groups of sheep and stabilized with either a rigid external fixator leading to standard healing or with a highly rotationally unstable one leading to delayed healing. At days 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 21, and 42 after surgery, total RNA was extracted from the callus. Gene expressions of vWF, an endothelial cell marker, and of several molecules related to blood vessel formation were studied by qPCR. Furthermore, histology was performed on fracture hematoma and callus sections. Histologically, the first blood vessels were detected at day 7 in both groups. mRNA expression levels of vWF, Ang1, Ang2, VEGF, CYR61, FGF2, MMP2, and TIMP1 were distinctly lower in the delayed compared to the standard healing group at several time points. Based on differential expression patterns, days 7 and 21 postoperatively were revealed to be essential time points for vascularization of the ovine fracture callus. This work demonstrates for the first time a differential regulation of blood vessel formation between standard and mechanically induced delayed healing in a sheep osteotomy model. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

    FGF23 is a putative marker for bone healing and regeneration

    Sascha Goebel
    Abstract Besides numerous other factors, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is involved in fracture healing and bone remodeling. FGF23 is a phosphatonin produced by osteoblastic cells, which signals via FGFR1, thereby exerting effects in bone and kidney. We analyzed if serum FGF23 levels might be an indicator to predict fracture healing and union. FGF23 (C-Term) was elevated on day 3 postoperatively in 55 patients sustaining an exchange of total hip implants due to aseptic loosening. A prospective study of 40 patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty also showed elevated FGF23 (C-Term) but no change in FGF23 (intact) levels on days 1, 4, and 10 postoperatively. Serum phosphate and phosphate clearance stayed within normal ranges. FGF23 mRNA expression in ovine callus was compared between a standard and delayed course of osteotomy healing. In the standard model, a marked increase in FGF23 mRNA expression compared to the delayed healing situation was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis showed FGF23 production of osteoblasts and granulation tissue in the fracture callus during bone healing. In conclusion, FGF23 is involved in bone healing, can be measured by a sensitive assay in peripheral blood, and is a promising candidate as an indicator for healing processes prone to reunion versus nonunion. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

    Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB) and beta-tricalcium phosphate/collagen matrix enhance fracture healing in a diabetic rat model

    Loay Al-Zube
    Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a common systemic disease that has been associated with poor fracture healing outcomes. The mechanism through which diabetes impairs bone regeneration is unknown. One possible mechanism may be related to either decreased or uncoordinated release of local growth factors at the fracture site. Indeed, previous studies have found reduced platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in the fracture callus of diabetic rats, suggesting that local application of PDGF may overcome the negative effects of diabetes and promote fracture healing. To test this hypothesis, low (22 µg) and high (75 ug) doses of recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB) were applied directly to femur fracture sites in BB Wistar diabetic rats that were then compared to untreated or vehicle-treated animals. rhPDGF-BB treatment significantly increased early callus cell proliferation compared to that in control specimens. Low dose rhPDGF-BB treatment significantly increased callus peak torque values (p,<,0.05) at 8 weeks after fracture as compared to controls. High dose rhPDGF-BB treatment increased callus bone area at 12 weeks postfracture. These data indicate that rhPDGF-BB treatment ameliorates the effects of diabetes on fracture healing by promoting early cellular proliferation that ultimately leads to more bone formation. Local application of rhPDGF-BB may be a new therapeutic approach to treat diabetes-impaired fracture healing. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27: 1074,1081, 2009 [source]

    Remodeling of fracture callus in mice is consistent with mechanical loading and bone remodeling theory

    Hanna Isaksson
    Abstract During the remodeling phase of fracture healing in mice, the callus gradually transforms into a double cortex, which thereafter merges into one cortex. In large animals, a double cortex normally does not form. We investigated whether these patterns of remodeling of the fracture callus in mice can be explained by mechanical loading. Morphologies of fractures after 21, 28, and 42 days of healing were determined from an in vivo mid-diaphyseal femoral osteotomy healing experiment in mice. Bone density distributions from microCT at 21 days were converted into adaptive finite element models. To assess the effect of loading mode on bone remodeling, a well-established remodeling algorithm was used to examine the effect of axial force or bending moment on bone structure. All simulations predicted that under axial loading, the callus remodeled to form a single cortex. When a bending moment was applied, dual concentric cortices developed in all simulations, corresponding well to the progression of remodeling observed experimentally and resulting in quantitatively comparable callus areas of woven and lamellar bone. Effects of biological differences between species or other reasons cannot be excluded, but this study demonstrates how a difference in loading mode could explain the differences between the remodeling phase in small rodents and larger mammals. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27: 664,672, 2009 [source]

    A new animal model for bone atrophic nonunion: Fixation by external fixator

    Katharina Kaspar
    Abstract A new small animal model of bone atrophic nonunion was established for investigating the process of bone regeneration by performing cauterization of the periosteum, removal of the local bone marrow, and stabilization with external fixation. The model allows the creation of an atrophic nonunion without the need for a critical size defect. Furthermore, it provides reproducible, well-defined mechanical conditions and minimized physical interference of the implant with the biological processes in the healing zone. Eighty adult Sprague-Dawley rats received an osteotomy of the left femur, stabilized with an external fixator. In half of the animals, the periosteum proximal and distal to the osteotomy was destroyed by cauterization and the adjacent bone marrow was removed (nonunion group). At 2 and 8 weeks after surgery, radiological, biomechanical, histological, and histomorphometrical analyses showed a typical physiological healing in the control group, while the nonunion group was characterized by resorption of the bone ends with some callus formation distant to the osteotomy. At both time points, the callus was composed of significantly less bone and significantly more connective tissue (p,<,0.001). In addition, the torsional strength of the osteotomized femur was significantly less in the nonunion group than in the control group, which was comparable to that of the intact femur (p,<,0.001). In conclusion, the present model allows the induction of an atrophic nonunion without the need of a critical size defect. It is reproducible, provides standardized biomechanical conditions, and allows minimized interaction of the implant with the healing zone. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

    Effects of delayed stabilization on fracture healing

    Theodore Miclau
    Abstract Previous studies have revealed that delayed internal fixation can stimulate fracture callus formation and decrease the rate of nonunion. However, the effect of delayed stabilization on stem cell differentiation is unknown. To address this, we created fractures in mouse tibiae and applied external fixation immediately, at 24, 48, 72, or 96 h after injury. Fracture healing was analyzed at 10 days by histological methods for callus, bone, and cartilage formation, and the mechanical properties of the calluses were assessed at 14 days postinjury by tension testing. The results demonstrate that delaying stabilization for 24,96 h does not significantly affect the volume of the callus tissue (TV) and the new bone (BV) that formed by 10 days, or the mechanical properties of the calluses at 14 days, compared to immediate stabilization. However, delaying stabilization for 24,96 h induces 10,40× more cartilage in the fracture calluses compared with fractures stabilized immediately. These findings suggest that delaying stabilization during the early phase of fracture healing may not significantly stimulate bone repair, but may alter the mode of bone repair by directing formation of more cartilage. Fractures that are not rigidly stabilized form a significantly larger amount of callus tissue and cartilage by 10 days postinjury than fractures stabilized at 24,96 h, indicating that mechanical instability influences chondrocytes beyond the first 96 h of fracture healing. © 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. © 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 25:1552,1558, 2007 [source]

    Smoking delays chondrogenesis in a mouse model of closed tibial fracture healing

    Hossam B. El-Zawawy
    Abstract Smoking delays the healing process and increases morbidity associated with many common musculoskeletal disorders, including long bone fracture. In the current study, a murine model of tibial fracture healing was used to test the hypothesis that smoking delays chondrogenesis after fracture. Mice were divided into two groups, a nonsmoking control group and a group exposed to cigarette smoke for 1 month prior to surgical tibial fracture. Mice were euthanized at 7, 14, and 28 days after surgery. The outcomes measured were immunohistochemical staining for type II collagen protein expression as a marker of cartilage matrix and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining to measure proliferation at the site of injury. Toluidine blue staining and histomorphometry were used to quantify areas of cartilaginous and noncartilaginous fracture callus. Radiographs were analyzed for evidence of remodeling after injury. At day 7 after injury, mice exposed to cigarette smoke had a smaller fracture callus with less cartilage matrix compared to controls. Proliferation was present at high levels in both groups at this time point, but proliferating cells had a more immature morphology in the smoking group. At day 14, chondrogenesis was more active in smokers compared to controls, while a higher percentage of bone was present in the control animals. At day 28, X-ray analysis revealed a larger fracture callus remaining in the smoking animals. Together, these findings show that the chondrogenic phase of tibial fracture healing is delayed by smoking. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first analysis of molecular and cellular mechanisms of healing in a smoking mouse fracture model. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

    Global gene profiling reveals a downregulation of BMP gene expression in experimental atrophic nonunions compared to standard healing fractures

    Takahiro Niikura
    Abstract Nonunion is a challenging problem that may occur following certain bone fractures. However, there has been little investigation of the molecular basis of nonunions. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a significant role in osteogenesis. However, little is known about the expression patterns of BMPs in abnormal bone healing that results in nonunion formation. These facts prompted us to investigate and compare the gene expression patterns of BMPs and their antagonists in standard healing fractures and nonunions using rat experimental models. Standard closed healing fractures and experimental atrophic nonunions produced by periosteal cauterization at the fracture site were created in rat femurs. At postfracture days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28, total RNA was extracted from the callus of standard healing fracture and fibrous tissue of nonunion (n,=,4 per each time point and each group). Gene expression of BMPs, BMP antagonists, and other regulatory molecules were studied by methods including Genechip® microarray and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression of BMP-2, 3, 3B, 4, 6, 7, GDF-5, 7, and BMP antagonists noggin, drm, screlostin, and BAMBI were significantly lower in nonunions compared to standard healing fractures at several time points. Downregulation in expression of osteogenic BMPs may account for the nonunions of fracture. The balance between BMPs and their endogenous antagonists is critical for optimal fracture healing. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 24:1463,1471, 2006 [source]

    CYR61 (CCN1) Protein Expression during Fracture Healing in an Ovine Tibial Model and Its Relation to the Mechanical Fixation Stability

    Jasmin Lienau
    Abstract The formation of new blood vessels is a prerequisite for bone healing. CYR61 (CCN1), an extracellular matrix-associated signaling protein, is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis and mesenchymal stem cell expansion and differentiation. A recent study showed that CYR61 is expressed during fracture healing and suggested that CYR61 plays a significant role in cartilage and bone formation. The hypothesis of the present study was that decreased fixation stability, which leads to a delay in healing, would lead to reduced CYR61 protein expression in fracture callus. The aim of the study was to quantitatively analyze CYR61 protein expression, vascularization, and tissue differentiation in the osteotomy gap and relate to the mechanical fixation stability during the course of healing. A mid-shaft osteotomy of the tibia was performed in two groups of sheep and stabilized with either a rigid or semirigid external fixator, each allowing different amounts of interfragmentary movement. The sheep were sacrificed at 2, 3, 6, and 9 weeks postoperatively. The tibiae were tested biomechanically and histological sections from the callus were analyzed immunohistochemically with regard to CYR61 protein expression and vascularization. Expression of CYR61 protein was upregulated at the early phase of fracture healing (2 weeks), decreasing over the healing time. Decreased fixation stability was associated with a reduced upregulation of the CYR61 protein expression and a reduced vascularization at 2 weeks leading to a slower healing. The maximum cartilage callus fraction in both groups was reached at 3 weeks. However, the semirigid fixator group showed a significantly lower CYR61 immunoreactivity in cartilage than the rigid fixator group at this time point. The fraction of cartilage in the semirigid fixator group was not replaced by bone as quickly as in the rigid fixator group leading to an inferior histological and mechanical callus quality at 6 weeks and therefore to a slower healing. The results supply further evidence that CYR61 may serve as an important regulator of bone healing. © 2005 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerated bone remodeling during consolidation stage of distraction osteogenesis

    Chun Wai Chan
    Abstract Bone regeneration in distraction osteogenesis occurs under tensile stress with axial rhythmic distraction after osteotomy. In this study, we evaluated if the low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was also effective on enhancement of bone remodeling during consolidation stage of distraction osteogenesis. Open osteotomy of seventeen 18-week-old female New Zealand rabbit tibiae were performed. The distraction was applied with the rate of 1 mm per day. LIPUS (30 mW/cm2, 1.5 MHz) was delivered for 20 min per day during 4-week consolidation stage (n,=,10). The animals without treatment served as sham group (n,=,7). Plain X-ray, peripheral quantitative computational tomography (pQCT), and torsional test were performed. Results showed that smaller radiolucent interzone of LIPUS treatment group was gradually occupied by calcified tissue in plain X-ray at week 2. The bone mineral density (BMD) measured on radiographs increased by 9.18% in the LIPUS group. Bone mineral content (BMC), hard callus volume, and bone strength index (BSI) measured by pQCT were 83%, 116%, and 94%, respectively, in LIPUS group that were significantly greater than those of the controls. At the 4th week, LIPUS-treated callus showed the development of neocorticalization in the proximal and distal region. The BMC, hard callus volume, and BSI of LIPUS group decreased and was not significantly different from control. This was also confirmed by the maximum torque of LIPUS-treated callus (1424.2,±,457.3 N,·,mm) obtained at week 4, which did not differ from that of the sham group (1968.8,±,895.1 N,·,mm). In conclusion, the effective period of LIPUS treatment was at the initial stage of consolidation, with accelerated bone formation and remodeling. © 2005 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

    Intact fibula improves fracture healing in a rat tibia osteotomy model

    Sandra J. Shefelbine
    Abstract Rat tibia fractures are often used in fracture healing studies. Usually the fracture is stabilized with an intramedullary pin, which provides bending stiffness, but little torsional stiffness. The objective of this research was to determine the in vitro torsional rigidity of an osteotomized tibia with and without the fibula, and to determine if this difference influences the healing process in vivo. In vitro eleven rat tibias received an osteotomy, were stabilized with an intramedullary pin, and were tested in internal rotation to determine the torsional rigidity. The fibula was then manually broken and the torsional rigidity measured again. In vivo 18 rats received a tibial osteotomy, eight of which had an additional fractured fibula. After three weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the tibias were analyzed. Bone density in the fracture callus was measured with qCT. Bending rigidity and maximum breaking moment were determined in three-point bending. In vitro testing demonstrated that the torsional rigidity with an intact fibula was nearly two times higher than when the fibula was fractured. Though the torsional rigidity was still small in comparison with an intact bone, it resulted in a significantly different healing process in vivo. Rats with intact fibulas had significantly higher bone mineral density, bending rigidity, and maximum breaking moment compared to rats with a fractured fibula. These results indicate that torsional stability considerably affects the healing process. In a fracture model, it is critical to characterize the mechanical environment of the fracture. © 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Biomechanical evaluation of healing in a non-critical defect in a large animal model of osteoporosis

    C. A. Lill
    Abstract Current methods for fracture treatment in osteoporosis are not always sufficient. To develop new fixation strategies (both mechanical and biological) requires pre-clinical testing utilizing appropriate models. The aim of this study was to apply a recently developed sheep model of osteoporosis to the study of healing in a non-critical long bone defect. A standardized transverse mid-shaft tibial osteotomy (with a fracture gap of 3 mm) was performed in seven osteoporotic and seven normal sheep and stabilized with a special external fixator for 8 weeks. The fixator was used for weekly in vivo bending stiffness measurements. Ex vivo bending stiffness and torsional stiffness of the callus zone were also determined. Callus area, callus density, and osteoporosis status were determined at 0, 4, and 8 weeks using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The increase of in vivo bending stiffness of the callus was delayed approximately 2 weeks in osteoporotic animals. A significant difference (33%) in torsional stiffness was found between the osteotomized and contralateral intact tibia in osteoporotic animals, but no significant difference occurred in normal sheep (2%). In osteoporotic animals, ex vivo bending stiffness was reduced 21% (p = 0.05). Bending stiffness was correlated with callus density (r = 0.76, r = 0.53); torsional stiffness was correlated with callus area (r = 0.60) and to a lesser extent with callus density (r = 0.53). This study demonstrated a delay of fracture healing in osteoporotic sheep tibiae with respect to callus formation, mineralization, and mechanical properties. © 2003 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Age and ovariectomy impair both the normalization of mechanical properties and the accretion of mineral by the fracture callus in rats

    Ralph A. Meyer Jr.
    The impact of age and ovariectomy on the healing of femoral fractures was studied in three groups of female rats at 8, 32 and 50 weeks of age at fracture. In the two older groups, the rats had been subjected to ovariectomy or sham surgery at random at 26 weeks of age. At fracture, all rats received unilateral intramedullary pinning of one femur and a middiaphyseal fracture. Rigidity and breaking load of the femora were evaluated at varying times up to 24 weeks after fracture induction by three-point bending to failure. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the youngest group, 8-week-old female rats regained normal femoral rigidity and breaking load by 4 weeks after fracture. They exceeded normal contralateral values by 8 weeks after fracture. In the middle group, at 32 weeks of age, fractures were induced, and the femora were harvested at 6 and 12 weeks after fracture. At 6 weeks after fracture there was partial restoration of rigidity and breaking load. At 12 weeks after fracture, only the sham-operated rats had regained normal biomechanical values in their fractured femora, while the fractured femora of the ovariectomized rats remained significantly lower in both rigidity and breaking load. In contrast, for the oldest group of rats, 50 weeks old at fracture, neither sham-operated nor ovariectomized rats regained normal rigidity or breaking load in their fractured femora within the 24 weeks in which they were studied. In all fractured bones, there was a significant increase in BMD over the contralateral intact femora due to the increased bone tissue and bone mineral in the fracture callus. Ovariectomy significantly reduced the BMD of the intact femora and also reduced the gain in BMD by the fractured femora. In conclusion, age and ovariectomy significantly impair the process of fracture healing in female rats as judged by measurements of rigidity and breaking load in three-point bending and by accretion of mineral into the fracture callus. © 2001 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Molecular aspects of healing in stabilized and non-stabilized fractures

    A. X. Le
    Bone formation is a continuous process that is initiated during fetal development and persists in adults in the form of bone regeneration and remodeling. These latter two aspects of bone formation are clearly influenced by the mechanical environment. In this study we tested the hypothesis that alterations in the mechanical environment regulate the program of mesenchymal cell differentiation, and thus the formation of a cartilage or bony callus, at the site of injury. As a first step in testing this hypothesis we produced stabilized and non-stabilized tibial fractures in a mouse model, then used molecular and cellular methods to examine the stage of healing. Using the "molecular map" of the fracture callus, we divided our analyzes into three phases of fracture healing: the inflammatory or initial phase of healing, the soft callus or intermediate stage, and the hard callus stage. Our results show that indian hedgehog(ihh), which regulates aspects of chondrocyte maturation during fetal and early postnatal skeletogenesis, was expressed earlier in an non-stabilized fracture callus as compared to a stabilized callus, ihh persisted in the non-stabilized fracture whereas its expression was down-regulated in the stabilized bone. IHH exerts its effects on chondrocyte maturation through a feedback loop that may involve bone morphogenetic protein 6 [bmp6; (S. Pathi, J.B. Rutenberg, R.L. Johnson, A. Vortkamp, Developmental Biology 209 (1999) 239,253)] and the transcription factor gli3, bmp6 and gli3 were re-induced in domain adjacent to the ihh -positive cells during the soft and hard callus stages of healing. Thus, stabilizing the fracture, which circumvents or decreases the cartilaginous phase of bone repair, correlates with a decrease in ihh signaling in the fracture callus. Collectively, our results illustrate that the ihh signaling pathway participates in fracture repair, and that the mechanical environment affects the temporal induction of ihh, bmp6 and gli3. These data support the hypothesis that mechanical influences affect mesenchymal cell differentiation to bone. © 2001 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]