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  • Selected Abstracts

    Bioavailability and disposition of sodium and procaine penicillin G (benzylpenicillin) administered orally with milk to calves

    J. M. B. Musser
    Eighteen 1-week-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) sodium penicillin G administered intravenously, (b) sodium penicillin G administered orally, or (c) procaine penicillin G administered orally. All calves were dosed with penicillin G at 4.0 mg/kg BW. At 5 weeks of age, the calves were dosed again. Blood samples were taken serially for 24 h after both dosings. Plasma was assayed for penicillin G by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For i.v. administration, the area under the concentration,time curve (AUC), 7456 and 5508 ng/mL h, and systemic clearance, 0.54 and 0.73 L/kg h, were significantly different (P < 0.05) at 1 and 5 weeks of age, respectively. There were no significant differences between orally administered sodium and procaine penicillin G within the same age groups. Following oral (p.o.) administration, there were significant differences (P < 0.01) at 1 and 5 weeks of age in the AUC, 760 and 409 ng/mL h, terminal half-life, 2.1 and 1.6 h, time of maximum concentration (TMAX), 3.0 and 2.3 h, and maximum plasma concentration (CMAX), 85 and 58 ng/mL, respectively. Bioavailability was 10.2 and 7.4% at 1 and 5 weeks, respectively. [source]

    Prophylactic use of anti-emetic medications reduced nausea and vomiting associated with exenatide treatment: a retrospective analysis of an open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study in healthy subjects

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2010
    C. Ellero
    Diabet. Med. 27, 1168,1173 (2010) Abstract Aims, Transient nausea and, to a lesser extent, vomiting are common adverse effects of exenatide that can be mitigated by dose titration and usually do not result in treatment discontinuation. This retrospective analysis of data from a phase 1, open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated the effect of oral anti-emetics on exenatide-associated nausea and vomiting and on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide. Methods, A single subcutaneous dose (10 ,g) of exenatide was administered to 120 healthy subjects (19,65 years, BMI 23,35 kg/m2). Incidences of nausea and vomiting were compared between 60 subjects premedicated with two oral anti-emetics 30 min before the exenatide dose and 60 non-premedicated subjects. Similarly, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximum observed concentration (Cmax) of plasma exenatide concentrations over 8 h post-dose were compared. Results, Among all subjects [61% male, 32 ± 12 years, body mass index (BMI) 29.1 ± 3.4 kg/m2 (mean ± sd)], mild to moderate nausea was the most frequent adverse event after exenatide dosing. Vomiting was also observed. Subjects premedicated with anti-emetics experienced significantly less nausea and vomiting (16.7 and 6.7%, respectively) vs. non-premedicated subjects (61.7 and 38.3%, respectively; P -value < 0.0001 for both nausea and vomiting). The mean area under the concentration-time curve and the maximum observed concentration AUC and Cmax of plasma exenatide concentrations during 8 h post-dose were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion, Administration of oral anti-emetics before a single 10-,g exenatide dose was associated with significant reductions in treatment-emergent nausea and vomiting, with no discernible effect on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide. Use of anti-emetic therapy may provide a short-term strategy to minimize the nausea and vomiting associated with exenatide treatment. [source]

    Improving the dissolution and oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug aloe-emodin by solid dispersion with polyethylene glycol 6000

    Hao-gang Duan
    Abstract Solid dispersions (SDs) of aloe-emodin (AE) and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) with different drug loadings were prepared, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evaluated for solubility and in vitro release. The oral bioavailability of AE from SD in rats was compared with the crystalline drug. Plasma concentrations of AE were determined by HPLC. After administration of crystalline AE (35,mg·kg,1) in rats, the AUC0-600 and Cmax were 393.6±77.1,mg·min·l,1 and 1.87±0.30,mg·l,1, respectively. For the PEG6000 SD of AE, AUC0-600 and Cmax were boosted to 1310.5±111.9,mg·min·l,1 and 5.86±0.47,mg·l,1, respectively. The results indicated that the oral bioavailability of AE was increased significantly. Simultaneously, the Tmax value of AE for AE crystalline was decreased from 75.6±17.3,min to 44.8±14.8,min for SD. The earlier Tmax for AE from SD indicated the higher extent of absorption for SD due to their improved dissolution rate in rat intestine. This SD approach can therefore be used to enhanced dissolution and bioavailability for poorly water-soluble drugs. Drug Dev Res, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics of carisbamate (RWJ-333369) in healthy Japanese and Western subjects

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2009
    Peter Zannikos
    Summary Purpose:, To compare the pharmacokinetics of carisbamate (RWJ-333369) in healthy Japanese and Western adults, and to comparatively assess carisbamate safety and tolerability between the two populations. Methods:, An open-label study was conducted in 24 Japanese and 24 Caucasian healthy subjects. Subjects received a single oral dose of 250 mg carisbamate on day 1 followed by a 3-day washout period; twice-daily dosing of 250 mg carisbamate on days 5,8; subsequently, 500 mg on days 9,12 and a single dose of 500 mg on day 13. Plasma samples were collected for a pharmacokinetic analysis on days 1, 8, and 13. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed for carisbamate and its urinary metabolites by liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. Results:, Following a single dose, carisbamate Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) geometric mean ratios were 16.4% and 28.8% higher in Japanese than in Caucasians, respectively; these differences were statistically significant and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) fell outside of the 80,125% limits, which are considered not to be of clinical significance. With dose,body weight normalization, Cmax and AUC were similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects and the 90% CIs were within the 80,125% boundaries. Carisbamate was well tolerated, and its mean oral clearance and half-life were similar in both groups, ranging from 35.1,41.4 ml/h/kg and 11.5,12.8 h. Discussion:, Carisbamate plasma exposure (AUC) and Cmax in Japanese subjects is ,20,25% higher than in Caucasians due to a higher mg/kg dose. After body weight normalization, carisbamate pharmacokinetics was similar between Japanese and Caucasian subjects following single and multiple dosing, and showed the same dose proportionality. [source]

    Submerged macrophytes as indicators of the ecological quality of lakes

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Summary 1. We analysed submerged macrophyte communities from 300 Danish lakes to determine the efficacy of different species, maximum colonisation depth (Cmax) of plants as well as coverage and plant volume inhabited (PVI) as indicators of eutrophication. 2. Most species occurred at a wide range of phosphorus and chlorophyll a (Chla) concentrations, but some species of isoetids (Lobelia, Isoëtes) and Potamogeton (Potamogeton gramineus, Potamogeton alpinus and Potamogeton filiformis) were mainly found at low nutrient concentrations and hence may be considered as indicators of nutrient poor conditions. However, species typically found in nutrient-rich conditions, such as Elodea canadensis and Potamogeton pectinatus, were also found at total phosphorus (TP) <0.02 mg P L,1 and Chla <5 ,g L,1 and therefore cannot be considered as reliable indicators of eutrophic conditions. 3. Submerged macrophyte coverage, PVI and the Cmax were negatively correlated with TP and Chla. However, variability among lakes was high and no clear thresholds were observed. At TP between 0.03 and 0.07 mg P L,1 plant coverage in shallow lakes ranged from nearly 0 to 100%, whilst at concentrations between 0.10 and 0.20 mg P L,1 only 29% of the lakes had coverage >10%. Cmax was found to be a useful indicator only in deep lakes with unvegetated areas in the deeper part, whereas the use of coverage was restricted to shallow lakes or shallow areas of deep lakes. 4. Overall, submerged macrophytes responded clearly to eutrophication, but the metrics investigated here showed no well-defined thresholds. We developed a simple index based on species richness, presence of indicator species, coverage and Cmax, which might be used to track major changes in macrophyte communities and for lake classification. [source]

    Pharmacokinetic,pharmacodynamic study of apomorphine's effect on growth hormone secretion in healthy subjects

    Guy Aymard
    Abstract Apomorphine (APO) stimulates growth hormone (GH) release via dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2). There is no specific study assessing the relationship between APO pharmacokinetic (PK) and the pharmacodynamic (PD) response e.g. GH release. The objective of the study is the PK,PD modelling of APO in healthy subjects. This is a randomized crossover study with s.c. administration of 5, 10, and 20 ,g/kg of APO in 18 healthy subjects. APO concentrations were modelled according to both a bi-compartmental model with zero-order absorption and a bi-compartmental model with first-order absorption. PK,PD relationship was modelled in accordance with the Emax Hill equation using plasma concentrations of APO calculated according to the bi-compartmental model with zero-order absorption. Modelled parameters were very similar to the experimental parameters. PK of APO was linear and there was no significant difference between the tested doses for AUC0,, and Cmax (normalised to the dose 1 ,g/kg), t1/2, and t1/2,. These parameters expressed as mean (CV%: SD/mean) were: 17.2 (26.9) ng/mL·min, 0.26 (33.3) ng/mL, 17.1 (54.2) and 45.2 (20.6) min, respectively (n = 53). An anticlockwise hysteresis loop (effect function of APO plasma concentration) appeared for each dose and each subject. The predicted and measured GH concentrations for all subjects and times were similar whatever the dose (P > 0.27). Emax values were 246 (121), 180 (107), 205 (139) ng/mL, respectively, and EC50 were 0.98 (48.1), 1.70 (62.3), 3.67 (65.2) ng/mL, respectively at dose 5, 10, and 20 ,g/kg (P < 10,4). APO and GH concentrations were predicted with good accuracy using bi-compartmental with zero-order absorption PK model and sigmoid Emax PD model, respectively. [source]

    Determination of enalapril and enalaprilat by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: application to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis

    Khalid Matalka
    We have developed two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for determining enalapril and enalaprilat in plasma. In this study, 48 healthy subjects received an oral dose of either 10 or 20 mg of enalapril and plasma concentrations of enalapril and enalaprilat were determined by their specific ELISA methods. These plasma concentrations and blood pressure measurements were applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of both enalapril and enalaprilat. The enalapril values for the area under the curve (AUC0,,) were 480 ± 216 and 832 ± 325 ngh/mL, maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 310 ± 187 and 481 ± 185 ng/mL, and times required to reach the maximum concentration (tmax) were 1.13 ± 0.22 and 1.09 ± 0.33 h for 10 and 20 mg doses, respectively. The enalaprilat values for AUC0,, were 256 ± 122 and 383 ± 158 ngh/mL, Cmax values were 57 ± 29 and 72.9 ± 33.6 ng/mL and tmax values were 4.28 ± 1.45 and 4.05 ± 01.22 h for 10 and 20 mg doses, respectively. The Cmax values of enalapril were ,10 times higher than those in the literature, which were determined by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition assays following alkaline hydrolysis, but similar to those of enalaprilat. The PD profiles revealed a significant correlation between enalaprilat concentrations in plasma and the decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures (r=,0.95 with P < 0.001 and r=,0.95 with P < 0.001), respectively, following a single oral dose of enalapril. These ELISA methods have the advantage of being simple, accurate, sensitive, and do not depend on enalaprilat binding to ACE. Such methods can be used for analysis and kinetic testing of enalapril and enalaprilat in biological fluids. [source]

    B-domain deleted recombinant factor VIII preparations are bioequivalent to a monoclonal antibody purified plasma-derived factor VIII concentrate: a randomized, three-way crossover study

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2 2005
    C. M. Kessler
    Summary., Background:, Deletion of the B-domain of recombinant blood coagulation factor VIII (BDDrFVIII) increases the manufacturing yield of the product but does not impair in vitro or in vivo functionality. BDDrFVIII (ReFacto®) has been developed with the additional benefit of being formulated without human albumin. Objective:, The primary objective of this three-way crossover-design study was to compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of two BDDrFVIII formulations (one reconstituted with 5 mL of sterile water, the other reconstituted with 4 mL sodium chloride 0.9% USP) with those of a plasma-derived, full-length FVIII preparation (Hemofil® M) in patients with haemophilia A to determine bioequivalence. Methods:, A series of blood samples were collected over a period of 48 h after i.v. administration of each of the FVIII preparations. Plasma FVIII activity was determined using a validated chromogenic substrate assay. Plasma FVIII activity vs. time curves was characterized for a standard set of PK parameter estimates. Two parameter estimates, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under plasma concentration vs. time curves (AUCs), were used to evaluate bioequivalence. The two preparations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of geometric means for Cmax and AUCs fell within the bioequivalence window of 80% to 125%. Results/Conclusion:, Results show that each BDDrFVIII formulation is bioequivalent to Hemofil M and the two formulations of BDDrFVIII are bioequivalent to each other. [source]

    Subcutaneous Sumatriptan Pharmacokinetics: Delimiting the Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Effect

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2010
    Anthony W. Fox
    (Headache 2010;50:249-255) Background., The absolute bioavailability of subcutaneous (s.c.) sumatriptan is 96-100%. The decay curve for plasma concentration after 6 mg s.c. sumatriptan (ie, after Tmax = about 0.2 hours) includes a large distribution component. Metabolism by monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) leads to about 40% of the s.c. dose appearing in the urine as the inactive indole acetic acid. Product labeling states that co-administration of an inhibitor of MAO-A (a MAOI-A) causes a 2-fold increase in sumatriptan plasma concentrations, and a 40% increase in elimination half-life. Objective., The objective of this study is to determine whether MAOI-A therapy should deter the use of 6 mg s.c. sumatriptan on pharmacokinetic grounds. Methods., Summary pharmacokinetic data were taken from the literature and from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) study C92-050. Half-times were converted into rate constants, which were then used in a parsimonious compartmental model (needing only 3 simultaneous differential equations). Acceptance criteria for the model included observed plasma sumatriptan concentrations at Tmax, 1, 2, and 10 hours post-dose. A set of 1000 concentration measurements at a resolution of 36 seconds was generated. The model was then perturbed with elimination constants observed during concomitant moclobemide administration, creating a second set of concentration measurements. The 2 sets were then plotted, examined for their differences, and integrated for a second time to obtain and compare areas under the curve (AUCs). Results., The greatest absolute difference between the 2 sets of measurements was 2.85 ng/mL at t = 2.95 hours. A 2-fold difference between the 2 sets occurred only after t = 5.96 hours, when the concentration in the presence of the MAOI-A was 3.72 ng/mL (or <4% of Cmax). At t = 10 hours, the concentrations in both sets were <1 ng/mL (ie, below the lower limit of assay quantitation), and AUC0-10h was 97.4 and 117 ng.hour/mL in the absence and presence of the MAOI-A. Conclusions., There are no pharmacokinetic grounds to deter co-administration of an MAOI-A and subcutaneous sumatriptan. The dominance of the distribution phase and completeness of absorption of a 6 mg dose of s.c. sumatriptan explains the trivial effect size of the MAOI-A on plasma sumatriptan concentrations. Importantly, these findings should not be extrapolated to other routes of administration for sumatriptan. [source]

    Atazanavir and lopinavir with ritonavir alone or in combination: analysis of pharmacokinetic interaction and predictors of drug exposure

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
    S Di Giambenedetto
    Objectives Studies on the pharmacokinetic interaction between atazanavir and lopinavir with ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir) report contradictory results. We aimed to establish the in vivo interaction between these two protease inhibitors as well as the variables influencing drug exposure. Methods Pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated in HIV-infected patients treated with atazanavir 300 mg with ritonavir 100 mg q24h (group A) or lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg q12h (group B) or atazanavir 300 mg q24h with lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg q12h (group C). Patients receiving other concomitant protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were excluded. Results In group A (n=10), mean ± standard deviation atazanavir Cmin was 390 ± 460 ng/mL, Cmax 3051 ± 1996 ng/mL and AUC24 29 913 ± 17 686 ng/mL/h. In group B (n=9), lopinavir Cmin was 7562 ± 4292 ng/mL, Cmax 12 944 ± 4838 ng/mL and AUC0,12 122 313 ± 38 225 ng/mL/h. In group C (n=7), atazanavir Cmin was 876 ± 460 ng/mL (P=0.039 vs. group A), Cmax 3421 ± 3399 ng/mL and AUC0,24 65 055 ± 49 843 ng/mL/h (two-sided P>0.05 for each comparison with group A), lopinavir Cmin was 7471 ± 3745 ng/mL, Cmax 10 143 ± 5217 ng/mL and AUC0,12 104 501 ± 43 565 ng/mL/h (P>0.05 for each comparison with group B). When analysing all the groups, including controls from routine clinical practice, higher body mass index was associated with lower atazanavir Cmin and with lower lopinavir Cmax. Atazanavir Cmin showed a correlation with total bilirubin levels. Conclusions Combination with lopinavir/ritonavir provides higher atazanavir Cmin than combination with ritonavir alone, possibly because of an effect of the additional ritonavir dose. Low BMI may be associated with higher drug exposure. [source]

    No pharmacokinetic interaction between paliperidone extended-release tablets and trimethoprim in healthy subjects,

    An Thyssen
    Abstract Objective The effect of trimethoprim, a potent organic cation transport inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of paliperidone extended-release tablets (paliperidone ER), an organic cation mainly eliminated via renal excretion, was assessed. Methods Open-label, two-period, randomized, crossover study in 30 healthy males. Single dose of paliperidone ER 6,mg was administered either alone on day 1 or day 5 during an 8-day treatment period of trimethoprim 200,mg twice daily. Serial blood and urine samples were collected for PK and plasma protein binding of paliperidone and its enantiomers. The 90% confidence interval (CI) of ratios with/without trimethoprim for PK parameters of paliperidone and its enantiomers calculated. Results Creatinine clearance decreased from 119 to 102,mL,min,1 with trimethoprim. Addition of trimethoprim increased unbound fraction of paliperidone by 16%, renal clearance by 13%, AUC, by 9%, and t˝ by 19%. The 90% CIs for ratios with/without trimethoprim were within the 80,125% range for Cmax, AUClast, and renal clearance. For AUC,, 90% CI was 79.37,101.51, marginally below the lower bound of the acceptance range. Paliperidone did not affect steady-state plasma concentrations of trimethoprim. Conclusions No clinically important drug interactions are expected when paliperidone ER is administered with organic cation transport inhibitors. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics of mesalazine pellets in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    Heleen Wiersma MD
    Abstract Mesalazine is a first-line drug in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and is customarily used to induce and maintain remission in mild to moderate disease. In children, pharmacokinetic data are scarce, and dosage recommendations are largely extrapolated from studies in adults. Aim of the study was to obtain the pharmacokinetic profile of a new mesalazine pellet formulation in children with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis. A single oral dose of 20 mg/kg mesalazine was administered to 13 patients (age 6,16 years). Serial blood and urine sampling for determination of mesalazine and acetylmesalazine was performed before and during 24 hours following ingestion. Maximum plasma concentration of mesalazine (Cmax) was 1332 ng/mL (geometric mean, geometric coefficient of variation [CV]: 0.57), obtained 3.7 hours (tmax; CV: 0.31) after drug administration. Systemic exposure as determined by area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0,, ) was 8712 ng/ml*h (CV: 0.44). Terminal half-life of elimination of mesalazine was 3.5 hours (t1/2; CV: 1.43). This study presents extensive pharmacokinetic data on mesalazine in children with mild-moderately active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis. In comparison with previous experience in adults, pharmacokinetics of mesalazine administered as pellets appear to be similar in both populations. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics of a novel transdermal rivastigmine patch for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a review

    A. Kurz
    Summary Background:, Cholinesterase inhibitors have all been available in oral formulations, but a rivastigmine transdermal patch has now been developed and is approved in many countries worldwide for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) (including the USA, Latin America, Europe and Asia). Objectives:, To review the available pharmacokinetic data that supported the rationale behind the development of the rivastigmine transdermal patch and its clinical effects in dementia therapy. This article will also discuss how the patch may alter the treatment paradigm for patients with AD. Results:, The 9.5 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch was shown to provide comparable exposure to the highest recommended doses of capsules (12 mg/day) with significantly lower maximum plasma concentration (Cmax 8.7 vs. 21.6 ng/ml) and slower absorption rate (tmax 8.1 vs. 1.4 h). In a clinical trial of 1195 AD patients, this translated into similar efficacy with three times fewer reports of nausea and vomiting (7.2% vs. 23.1%, and 6.2% vs. 17.0% respectively). Consequently, more patients in the 9.5 mg/24 h patch group achieved their target therapeutic dose at the end of the study, compared with those in the 12 mg/day capsule group (95.9% vs. 64.4%). Conclusion:, The rivastigmine patch provides continuous drug delivery over 24 h and similar efficacy to the highest recommended dose of oral rivastigmine with improved tolerability. This may allow patients to achieve optimal therapeutic doses and to benefit from a longer duration of treatment. [source]

    Disposition and pharmacokinetics of a lubricant contaminant, 2,6-di- tert -butyl 4-nitrophenol, in grafted human skin

    Lynn K. Pershing
    Abstract Disposition and uptake/elimination profiles of topical 2,6-di- t -butyl, 4-nitrophenol (DBNP), the nitrated metabolite of an antioxidant additive of lubricant and hydraulic fluids was quantified in human skin grafted on athymic mice after a single topical 75 µg dose in corn oil. DBNP was quantified throughout the stratum corneum (SC), epidermis (E) and dermis (D) in punch biopsies collected from treated skin 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after application. SC samples were harvested from the treated skin with 20 adhesive discs. E and D were generated from the biopsy using a manual sectioning method. Detectable DBNP concentrations were measured in all skin compartments at all time points investigated. The Cmax of DBNP in SC was 1663 ± 602 µg cm,3, and ,30 and ,300 fold greater than the Cmax for E and D, respectively. Tmax occurred at 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0 in the SC, E and D, respectively. Over a 24 h interval (AUC0,24 h) there was 52 and 520 fold more DBNP in the SC than E and D, respectively. The elimination half-life of DBNP was 11 h from the SC and 9 h from both E and D. Thus, DBNP was quickly absorbed into the outermost layer of skin and established a steep concentration profile through human skin. The data are consistent with the vast majority of DBNP remaining on the surface (77%) or within human skin (15%) in vivo with only 0.2% of the DBNP dose quantified in the systemic blood circulation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gliclazide in healthy Chinese Han volunteers

    H. Shao PhD
    Summary Background and objective:,CYP2C9 is the major contributor to gliclazide metabolic clearance in vitro, while the pharmacokinetics of gliclazide modified release are affected mainly by CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms in vivo. This study aims to investigate the influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gliclazide in healthy Chinese Han volunteers. Methods:, Eighteen healthy Han subjects with various combinations of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genotypes received 80 mg gliclazide. Plasma gliclazide concentrations were measured by a liquid chromatography,tandem mass spectrometry method for 84 h and plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured up to 15 h post-dose. Results and discussion:, There was no difference in either pharmacokinetic and or pharmacodynamic parameters of gliclazide when group A (CYP2C9*1/*1, CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers) was compared with group B (CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2C19 *1/*1). When group C (CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C19 poor metabolizers) was compared with group A, the AUC0,, and Cmax in group C were significantly higher [83·94 ± 40·41 vs. 16·39 ± 5·10 ,g·h/mL (P = 0·000) and 1·50 ± 0·85 vs. 0·45 ± 0·18 ,g/mL (P = 0·000)], and the oral clearance was significantly lower [1·17 ± 0·63 vs. 5·38 ± 1·86 L/h (P = 0·000)]. The half-life of gliclazide was also significantly prolonged in group C subjects when compared with that of group A (33·47 ± 12·39 vs. 19·34 ± 10·45 h), but the difference was not significant (P = 0·052). The increase in serum glucose level at 11 h after dosing (,Cglu11) in group C was significantly higher than that of group A (,1·08 ± 0·42 vs. 0·22 ± 1·01 mmol/L, P = 0·022). The corresponding insulin levels showed no difference between the two groups. Conclusion:,CYP2C9*3 was not associated with any change in the disposition of gliclazide. CYP2C19 polymorphisms appear to exert the dominant influence on the pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in healthy Chinese Han subjects, and may also affect the observed pharmacodynamics of the drug as a result. [source]

    OATP1B1 388A>G polymorphism and pharmacokinetics of pitavastatin in Chinese healthy volunteers

    J. Wen PhD
    Summary Purpose:, To investigate the contribution of the most frequent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) 388A>G to the pharmacokinetics of pitavastatin in Chinese healthy volunteers. Methods:, Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in this study. Group 1 consisted of nine subjects who were of 388AA wild-type OATP1B1 genotype. Group 2 consisted of seven subjects with the 388GA genotype and two 388GG homozygotes. Two milligram of pitavastatin was administered orally to the volunteers. The plasma concentration of pitavastatin was measured for up to 48 h by liquid chromatography,mass spectrometry (LC,MS). Results:, The pharmacokinetic parameters of pitavastatin were significantly different between the two genotyped groups. The concentration (Cmax) value was higher in the 388GA + 388GG group than that in the 388AA group (39·22 ± 8·45 vs. 22·90 ± 4·03 ng/mL, P = 0·006). The area under the curve to the last measurable concentration (AUC0,48) and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC0,,) of pitavastatin were lower in the 388AA group than in the 388GA + 388GG group (100·42 ± 21·19 vs. 182·19 ± 86·46 ng h/mL, P = 0·024; 108·12 ± 24·94 vs. 199·64 ± 98·70ng h/mL, P = 0·026) respectively. The oral clearance (Cl/F) was lower in the 388GA + 388GG group than that in the 388AA group (12·46 ± 4·79 vs. 19·21 ± 3·74/h, P = 0·012). The elimination of half-life (t1/2) and peak concentration times (Tmax) values showed no difference between these groups. Conclusions:, The OATP 388A>G polymorphism causes significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of pitavastatin in healthy Chinese volunteers and this may well be clinically significant. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel in subjects with moderate liver disease

    D. S. Small PhD
    Summary Background and Objective:, Prasugrel is a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent under investigation for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients with chronic liver disease are among those in the target population for prasugrel. As hepatic enzymes play a key role in formation of prasugrel's active metabolite, hepatic impairment could affect the safety and/or efficacy of prasugrel in such patients. Methods:, This was a parallel-design, open-label, multiple dose study of 30 subjects, 10 with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) and 20 with normal hepatic function. Prasugrel was administered orally as a 60-mg loading dose (LD) and daily 10-mg maintenance doses (MDs) for 5 days. Pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0,t, Cmax and tmax) and maximal platelet aggregation (MPA) by light transmission aggregometry were assessed after the LD and final MD. Results and Discussion:, Exposure to prasugrel's active metabolite was comparable between healthy subjects and those with moderate hepatic impairment. Point estimates for the ratios of geometric least square means for AUC0,t and Cmax after the LD and last MD ranged from 0·91 to 1·14. MPA to 20 ,m ADP was similar between subjects with moderate hepatic impairment and healthy subjects for both the LD and MD. Prasugrel was well tolerated by all subjects, and adverse events were mild in severity. Conclusion:, Moderate hepatic impairment appears to have no effect on exposure to prasugrel's active metabolite. Furthermore, MPA results suggest that moderate hepatic impairment has little or no effect on platelet aggregation relative to healthy controls. Overall, these results suggest that a dose adjustment would not be required in moderately hepatically impaired patients taking prasugrel. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of modafinil tablets in Chinese subjects

    P. Xu PhD
    Summary Objective:, To investigate the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of modafinil in Chinese subjects. Methods:, Twelve healthy volunteers were given an escalating single dose of modafinil (100, 200 and 400 mg) in a three-period study (study 1). Another 12 volunteers received 100 mg twice daily for 7 days in multiple-dose study (study 2). Blood samples were taken from 0 to 60 h for study 1. And samples for study 2 were collected before administration on three consecutive morning and then from 0 to 60 h after the last dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared with results from published data. Results:, In study 1, Cmax and area under the concentration,time curve of modafinil and modafinil acid were increased proportionally with dose levels; t1/2 was independent on the dose levels. In study 2, the steady state was reached on day 4, and mean trough plasma concentration of modafinil was 1·36 ± 0·34 ,g/mL. Apparent plasma clearance and apparent volume of distribution were lower in 100 mg twice-daily group than those in 100 mg single group. The adverse events were mild and moderate in study 1 and 2. Conclusions:, In this pharmacokinetic study, modafinil was safe and well tolerated by young healthy Chinese subjects. The major pharmacokinetic parameters of modafinil in Chinese subjects are similar to those reported in Caucasians although the half-life seems to be longer in the former than in the latter. This apparent difference requires investigation. [source]

    Smoking behaviour modulates pharmacokinetics of orally administered clopidogrel

    A.-M. Yousef PhD
    Summary Background and objectives:, Clopidogrel is an important antiplatelet drug that is effective in preventing thrombotic events, especially for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The therapeutic usefulness of clopidogrel has been limited by documented inter-individual heterogeneity in platelet inhibition, which may be attributable to known clopidogrel pharmacokinetic variability. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of smoking cigarettes and abnormal body weight on the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel. Methods:, Seventy-six healthy adult male volunteers were selected randomly. Each subject received a single 75 mg oral dose of clopidogrel after overnight fast. Clopidogrel carboxylate plasma levels were measured and non-compartmental analysis was used to determine peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax), elimination half-life (t1/2e), and area under the curve (AUC0,,). Results:, One-third of volunteers were smokers (n = 27) and one-half had abnormal body weight (n = 39). Smokers had lower AUC0,, (smokers: 6·24 ± 2·32 ,g/h/mL vs. non-smokers: 8·93 ± 3·80 ,g/h/mL, P < 0·001) and shorter half-life (smokers: 5·46 ± 2·99 vs. non-smokers: 8·43 ± 4·26, P = 0·001). Smoking behaviour had no influence on Cmax (P = 0·3) and Tmax (P = 0·7). There was no statistically significant difference in Cmax, AUC0,,, Tmax and t1/2e between volunteers with abnormal body weight and normal body weight. However the difference in body weight of the two groups was relatively narrow (mean ± SE; 26·93 ± 0·16 vs. 23·11 ± 0·27). In general, the pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized by considerable inter-individual differences (Cmax = 3·09 ± 0·99 ,g/mL, CV = 32%), (Tmax =0·76 ± 0·24 h, CV = 31·6%), (AUC0,, = 7·98 ± 3·58 ,g/h/mL, CV = 44·8%), and (t1/2e = 7·38 ± 4·10 h, CV = 55·6%). Conclusion:, Smoking is a significant factor affecting the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel, following administration of a single 75 mg dose in healthy young volunteers. The study supports smoking-cessation recommendations. Further studies are required to evaluate the influence of smoking and body weight on the pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and on the clinical effects of any differences observed. [source]

    Determination of glycyrrhetic acid in human plasma by HPLC-MS method and investigation of its pharmacokinetics

    W.-J. Zhao PhD
    Summary Objective:, To develop a high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method for the determination of the glycyrrhetic acid (GA) in human plasma and for the investigation of its pharmacokinetics after the oral administration of 150 mg diammonium glycyrrhizinate test and reference capsule formulations. Methods:, The GA in plasma was extracted with ethyl acetate, separated on a C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol (5 mmol/L ammonium acetate),water (85 : 15, V/V) and analysed using a MS detector. Ursolic acid (UA) was used as internal standard. The target ions were m/z 469·5 for GA and m/z 455·6 for UA, the fragment voltages were 200 V and 100 V for GA and UA respectively. Results:, The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0·5,200 ng/mL (r = 0·9974). The limit of quantification for GA in plasma was 0·5 ng/mL, the recovery was 76·0,80·0%, and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) were <12%. The pharmacokinetic parameters of GA after a single dose of 150 mg diammonium glycyrrhizinate test and reference were as follows: the half life (t1/2) 9·65 ± 3·54 h and 9·46 ± 2·85 h, the time to peak concentration (Tmax) 10·95 ± 1·32 h and 11·00 ± 1·30 h, the peak concentration (Cmax) 95·57 ± 43·06 ng/mL and 103·89 ± 49·24 ng/mL; the area under time-concentration curve (AUC0,48 and AUC0,,) 1281·84 ± 527·11 ng·h/mL and 1367·74 ± 563·27 ng·h/mL, 1314·32 ± 566·40 ng·h/mL and 1396·97 ± 630·06 ng·h/mL. The relative bioavailability of diammonium glycyrrhizinate capsule was 98·88 ± 12·98%. Conclusion:, The assay was sensitive, accurate and convenient, and can be used for the determination of GA in human plasma. Comparison of the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of GA indicated that the test and reference capsules were bioequivalent. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant Sudanese women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    I. I. Abdelrahim MSc
    Summary Objectives:, The study was conducted in New Halfa teaching hospital, eastern Sudan to investigate the pharmacokinetics of quinine in pregnant Sudanese women. Methods:, Sixteen (eight pregnant and eight non-pregnant) Sudanese women infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were given a single dose of quinine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg body weight) as intravenous infusion over 2 h. The women were treated with intramuscular artemether. Plasma was collected before quinine administration and up to 72 h thereafter. These were analysed for quinine and its metabolites, 3-hydroxyquinine, (10R)-10,11-dihydroxyquinine and (10S)-10,11-dihydroxyquinine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results:, The two groups were well matched in their basic characteristics. There was no significant difference in the mean maximum plasma concentration attained (Cmax), the mean time at which Cmax was attained, the elimination half-life (t1/2) and the total area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve (AUC) of quinine and its metabolites between the pregnant in non-pregnant women. Conclusion:, There was no significant difference in quinine metabolism between pregnant and non-pregnant women and there is no need to adjust quinine dose when treating pregnant women. [source]

    Reduced oral itraconazole bioavailability by antacid suspension

    M. Lohitnavy
    Summary Aims:, To investigate the effects of antacid suspension on oral absorption of itraconazole. Methods:, A randomized, open-labelled, two-period, crossover study with a 1-week washout period was conducted in 12 healthy Thai male volunteers. The participants were allocated in either treatment A or B in the first period. In treatment A, the volunteers were orally administered with 200 mg of itraconazole alone. In treatment B, the volunteers were administered orally with 200 mg of itraconazole co-administered with antacid suspension. Serial serum samples were collected over the period of 24 h and subsequently analysed by using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Results:, Time to reach maximal concentration (Tmax), maximal concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0--,) were markedly decreased in antacid-treated group. Tmax for treatment A was 3·0 ± 0·4 and 5·1 ± 2·7 h for treatment B. Cmax and AUC0--, of treatments A and B were 146·3 ± 70·5 vs. 43·6 ± 16·9 (ng/mL) and 1928·5 ± 1114·6 vs. 654·8 ± 452·2 (ng·h/mL) respectively. 90% Confidence interval (90% CI) of Cmax and AUC0--, were 24·1,42·1 and 16·2,65·9 respectively. Conclusions:, Rate and extent of itraconazole oral absorption were markedly decreased by concurrent use of antacid suspension. Hence, co-administration of itraconazole and antacid suspension should be avoided. [source]

    Ketoconazole increases plasma concentrations of antimalarial mefloquine in healthy human volunteers

    W. Ridtitid MD FCFPT
    Summary Background:, Antimalarial mefloquine has a structure related to quinine. The major metabolite of quinine is 3-hydroxyquinine formed by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, is known to markedly increase plasma concentrations of various co-administered drugs including quinine. Objective:, To assess the effect of ketoconazole on plasma concentrations of mefloquine in healthy Thai male volunteers. Methods:, In an open, randomized two-phase crossover study separated by a 1-month period, eight healthy Thai male volunteers received a single oral dose of 500 mg mefloquine alone or co-administration with 400 mg/day ketoconazole orally for 10 days. Serial blood samples were collected at specific time points for a 56-day period. Plasma mefloquine and mefloquine carboxylic metabolite concentrations during 56 days were measured by a modified and validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection. Results:, Co-administration with ketoconazole markedly increased the mean values of mefloquine AUC0,t, t1/2, and Cmax when compared with mefloquine alone by 79% (P < 0·001), 39% (P < 0·05) and 64% (P < 0·001) respectively. The AUC0,t,, and Cmax of mefloquine carboxylic acid metabolite were decreased by 28% (P < 0·05) and 31% (P < 0·05), respectively when compared with mefloquine alone. Conclusions:, Co-administration with ketoconazole increased plasma mefloquine concentrations in healthy human volunteers. One of possible mechanisms of the increase in plasma mefloquine concentrations may be the result of the inhibition of CYP3A4 by ketoconazole. In case of mefloquine is co-administered with ketoconazole, drug,drug interactions should be recognized and the dose of mefloquine should be adjusted to maximize the therapeutic efficacy and to reduce the cost of therapy. [source]

    Effect of Piperine, a Major Component of Black Pepper, on the Intestinal Absorption of Fexofenadine and Its Implication on Food,Drug Interaction

    Ming-Ji Jin
    ABSTRACT:, The present study aimed to investigate the effect of piperine, a major component of black pepper, on the oral exposure of fexofenadine in rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters of fexofenadine were determined in rats following an oral (10 mg/kg) or intravenous (5 mg/kg) administration of fexofenadine in the presence and absence of piperine (10 or 20 mg/kg, given orally). Compared to the control group given fexofenadine alone, the combined use of piperine increased the oral exposure (AUC) of fexofenadine by 180% to 190% while there was no significant change in,Cmax and,T1/2 of fexofenadine in rats. The bioavailability of fexofenadine was increased by approximately 2-folds via the concomitant use of piperine. Furthermore,,Tmax tends to be increased which might be attributed to the delayed gastric emptying in the presence of piperine. In contrast, piperine did not alter the intravenous pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine, implying that piperine may increase mainly the gastrointestinal absorption of fexofenadine rather than reducing hepatic extraction. In conclusion, piperine significantly enhanced the oral exposure of fexofenadine in rats likely by the inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated cellular efflux during the intestinal absorption, suggesting that the combined use of piperine or piperine-containing diet with fexofenadine may require close monitoring for potential drug,diet interactions. [source]

    Validation of an LC,MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of BZP and TFMPP and their Hydroxylated Metabolites in Human Plasma and its Application to the Pharmacokinetic Study of TFMPP in Humans,

    Ushtana Antia M.Sc.
    Abstract:, An LC,MS method was developed for benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), constituents of "party pills" or "legal herbal highs," and their metabolites in human blood plasma. Compounds were resolved using a mixture of ammonium formate (pH 4.5, 0.01 M) and acetonitrile (flow rate of 1.0 mL/min) with a C18 column. Calibration curves were linear from 1 to 50 ng/mL (R2 > 0.99); the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5 ng/mL; the accuracy was >90%; the intra- and interday relative standard deviations (R.S.D) were <5% and <10%, respectively. Human plasma concentrations of TFMPP were measured in blood samples taken from healthy adults (n = 6) over 24 h following a 60-mg oral dose of TFMPP: these peaked at 24.10 ng/mL (±1.8 ng/mL) (Cmax) after 90 min (Tmax). Plasma concentrations of 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) piperazine peaked at 20.2 ng/mL (±4.6 ng/mL) after 90 min. TFMPP had two disposition phases (t˝ = 2.04 h (±0.19 h) and 5.95 h (±1.63 h). Apparent clearance (Cl/F) was 384 L/h (±45 L/h). [source]

    Ticlopidine quantification in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Application to bioequivalence study
    Abstract A rapid, sensitive and specific method to quantify ticlopidine in human plasma using clopidogrel as the internal standard (IS) is described. The analyte and the IS were extracted from acidified plasma by liquid,liquid extraction using diethyl ether,hexane (80 : 20, v/v). The extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Chromatography was performed isocratically on a Jones Genesis C8 4 µm analytical column (150 × 4.1 mm i.d.). The method had a chromatographic run time of 3.0 min and a linear calibration curve over the range 1.0,1000 ng ml,1 (r2 > 0.999427). The limit of quantification was 1.0 ng ml,1. This HPLC/MS/MS procedure was used to assess the bioequivalence of two ticlopidine 250 mg tablet formulations (ticlopidine test formulation from Apotex do Brasil, Brazil, and Ticlid from Sanofi-Synthelabo, standard reference formulation). A single 250 mg dose of each formulation was administered to healthy volunteers. The study was conducted using an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 2 week washout interval. Since the 90% confidence interval for Cmax and area under the curve ratios were all inside the 80,125% interval proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration, it was concluded that ticlopidine formulation from Apotex do Brasil is bioequivalent to Ticlid formulation with respect to both the rate and the extent of absorption. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Relationship between the hepatitis C viral load and the serum interferon concentration during the first week of peginterferon-alpha-2b-ribavirin combination therapy

    Catherine François
    Abstract In chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, the current standard of care (combination therapy with pegylated alpha interferon (PEG-IFN,) and ribavirin) is only effective in around 50% of cases. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the HCV load and the PEG-IFN concentration during the first week of treatment. Fifteen treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C infection (genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4) underwent PEG-IFN,-2b/ribavirin combination therapy. Blood samples were collected before the first injection (T0) and then at different time points until the next injection a week later. The PEG-IFN concentration and the HCV load were assayed. The serum interferon concentration peaked 2 days after the first injection (mean value for the study population; Tmax,=,40.9,hr; Cmax,=,490,pg/ml) and a trough in viral load was seen at day 3. The PEG-IFN,-2b concentration decreased from day 2 to day 7, enabling a viral rebound in all patients. The change in viral load between day 0 and day 3 differed significantly according to whether the patients were responders at week 12 (,log,d0/d3,=,2.729,±,1.419,log10,IU/ml) or not (,log,d0/d3,=,1.102,±,0.472,log10,IU/ml). Our results emphasize the potential clinical importance of achieving viral decay immediately after initiation of interferon,ribavirin combination therapy. J. Med. Virol. 82:1640,1646, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Development of patch and spray formulations for enhancing topical delivery of sinomenine hydrochloride

    Xinru Li
    Abstract The purpose of this work was to investigate feasibility of a promising topical drug delivery system (TDDS) for sinomenine hydrochloride (SMH), extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant sinomenine acutum and currently used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It was found that SMH was a weak base (pKa, 7.98,±,0.04) with pH-dependent solubility and partition coefficient. The result of in vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the permeation enhancer azone was the most effective. In contrast, spray had higher accumulative permeated amounts of SMH than patch, but permeated duration of spray was shorter than that of patch. The efficacy on Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis suggested that there was near arthritis index for SMH spray with medium dose (i.e., 15,mg/rat) and oral solution at a dose of 12,mg/rat, indicating that topical SMH delivery system could achieve the similar anti-inflammatory efficacy with oral administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax and AUC for both topical preparations were lower than those for oral preparation, which hinted that systemic side effect could be ignored. Therefore, the spray and patch were promising formulations for successful topical delivery of SMH through the skin instead of oral administration with side effects. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99: 1790,1799, 2010 [source]

    Microchannels created by sugar and metal microneedles: Characterization by microscopy, macromolecular flux and other techniques

    Guohua Li
    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using microneedle technology to enhance transcutaneous permeation of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) across hairless rat skin. Microchannels created by maltose and metal (DermaRollerÔ) microneedles were characterized by techniques such as methylene blue staining, histological examination, and calcein imaging. Methylene blue staining and histological sections of treated skin showed that maltose microneedles and DermaRollerÔ breached the skin barrier by creating microchannels in the skin with an average depth of ,150,µm, as imaged by confocal microscopy. Calcein imaging and pore permeability index values suggested the uniformity of the created pores in microneedle-treated skin. Transdermal studies with IgG indicated a flux rate of 45.96,ng/cm2/h, in vitro, and a Cmax of 7.27,ng/mL, in vivo, for maltose microneedles-treated skin while a flux rate of 353.17,ng/cm2/h, in vitro, and a Cmax of 9.33,ng/mL, in vivo, was achieved for DermaRollerÔ-treated skin. Transepidermal water loss measurements and methylene blue staining, in vivo, indicated the presence of microchannels for upto 24,h, when occluded. In conclusion, the microchannels created by maltose microneedles and DermaRollerÔ resulted in the percutaneous enhancement of a macromolecule, human IgG. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99: 1931,1941, 2010 [source]

    Bioavailability of generic ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir tablet products in a dog model

    Kevin W. Garren
    Abstract In this study, we explored the bioavailability in dogs and chemical potency of generic ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir tablet products manufactured by various pharmaceutical companies. Chemical potency of the products was examined by HPLC quantitation of ritonavir and lopinavir. Using a dog model, we determined point estimates for Cmax and AUC of ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir for eight generic products compared to Abbott's Norvir® capsule and Kaletra® tablet. Chemical potencies ranged from 79.0% to 104.6%. Point estimates for AUC in the generic tablet products ranged from 0.01 to 1.11, indicating that the relative bioavailability of these formulations was in the range of 1,111% compared to the branded products. This study showed significant variability in bioavailability in a dog model amongst generic tablet products containing the protease inhibitors ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. The chemical potency of the generic products was not indicative of the plasma levels of ritonavir or lopinavir that were achieved. These results reinforce the need for human bioequivalence testing of generic products containing ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir to assure that efficacy in patients is not compromised prior to these products being made available to patients. Procurement policies of funding agencies should require such quality assurance processes. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:626,631, 2010 [source]