CD1 Mice (cd1 + mouse)

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Selected Abstracts

Protein degradation, as with protein synthesis, is required during not only long-term spatial memory consolidation but also reconsolidation

Julien Artinian
Abstract The formation of long-term memory requires protein synthesis, particularly during initial memory consolidation. This process also seems to be dependant upon protein degradation, particularly degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal requirement of protein synthesis and degradation during the initial consolidation of allocentric spatial learning. As memory returns to a labile state during reactivation, we also focus on the role of protein synthesis and degradation during memory reconsolidation of this spatial learning. Male CD1 mice were submitted to massed training in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. At various time intervals after initial acquisition or after a reactivation trial taking place 24 h after acquisition, mice received an injection of either the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin or the protein degradation inhibitor lactacystin. This injection was performed into the hippocampal CA3 region, which is specifically implicated in the processing of spatial information. Results show that, in the CA3 hippocampal region, consolidation of an allocentric spatial learning task requires two waves of protein synthesis taking place immediately and 4 h after acquisition, whereas reconsolidation requires only the first wave. However, for protein degradation, both consolidation and reconsolidation require only one wave, taking place immediately after acquisition or reactivation, respectively. These findings suggest that protein degradation is a key step for memory reconsolidation, as for consolidation. Moreover, as protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation occurred faster than consolidation, reconsolidation did not consist of a simple repetition of the initial consolidation. [source]

A hVIPR transgene as a novel tool for the analysis of circadian function in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus

V. M. King
Abstract A mouse bearing a novel transgene encoding the human VPAC2 receptor (hVIPR; Shen et al. (2000) PNAS, 97, 11575,11580) was used to investigate circadian function in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Neurons expressing hVPAC2R, detected by a beta-galactosidase (,-GAL) tag, have a distinct distribution within the SCN, closely matching that of neurophysin (NP) neurons and extending into the region of peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) cells. In common with NP and PHI cells, neurons expressing hVPAC2R are circadian in nature, as revealed by synchronous rhythmic expression of mPERIOD (mPER) proteins. A population of SCN cells not expressing PHI, NP or hVPAC2R exhibited circadian PER expression antiphasic with the rest of the SCN. Nocturnal light exposure induced mPER1 in the ventral SCN and mPER2 widely across the nucleus. Induction of nuclear mPER2 in hVPAC2R cells confirmed their photic responsiveness. Having established their circadian properties, we tested the utility of SCN neurons expressing the hVIPR transgene as functionally and anatomically explicit markers for SCN tissue grafts. Prenatal SCN tissue from hVIPR transgenic pups survived transplantation into adult CD1 mice, and expressed ,-GAL, PER and PHI. Over a series of studies, hVIPR transgenic SCN grafts restored circadian activity rhythms to 17 of 72 arrhythmic SCN lesioned recipients (23.6%). By using heterozygous hVIPR transgenic grafts on a heterozygous Clock mutant background we confirmed that restored activity rhythms were conferred by the donor tissue. We conclude that the hVIPR transgene is a powerful and flexible tool for examination of circadian function in the mouse SCN. [source]

Aquaporin 11 in the developing mouse submandibular gland

Helga S. Larsen
Larsen HS, Ruus A-K, Schreurs O, Kanli Galtung H. Aquaporin 11 in the developing mouse submandibular gland. Eur J Oral Sci 2010; 118: 9,13. 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation 2010 Eur J Oral Sci Several aquaporins (AQPs) have been detected in mature and embryonic mammalian salivary glands (AQP1 and AQP3,AQP8). However, AQP11 has, to our knowledge, never before been described in salivary glands, but is known to be important in, for example, kidney development in mice. We therefore thought it relevant to investigate if AQP11 was present during salivary organogenesis. The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) from CD1 mice was studied during prenatal development and early postnatal development, and also in young adult male and female mice. The expression trend of the AQP11 transcript was detected using the reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the temporal,spatial pattern was observed using in situ hybridization. The AQP11 transcript was first detected at embryonic day 13.5 and showed a more or less constitutive expression trend during the prenatal and early postnatal SMG development. Spatial studies demonstrated that the AQP11 transcript was present in the developing and mature duct structures at all stages studied. In the end pieces, the AQP11 transcript was reduced during glandular development. Our results point to an important role for AQP11 during salivary gland development. [source]

Effect of lindane on CYP-mediated steroid hormone metabolism in male mice following in utero exposure

Emma Di Consiglio
Abstract A wide number of pesticides, including highly persistent organochlorinated compounds, such as lindane (LIN), may induce reproductive and developmental alterations by directly binding to the estrogen/androgen receptors or altering steroid hormone metabolism. In the present work, we have investigated whether LIN in utero exposure of CD1 mice affects the reproductive system in male offspring by causing an impairment of the CYP-dependent steroid hormone metabolism. Dam exposure to 25 mg kg,1 b.w. LIN occurred during critical developmental periods, from gestational days 9 to 16. Effects on hepatic CYP-mediated testosterone (TST) hydroxylase, aromatase activities and testicular parameters were tested at postnatal days (PND 50, 65,69, 100) that are critical for sexual maturation in CD1 mice. In the adult F1 mice significant changes of male reproductive endpoints (testis weight, spermatid number) as well as dramatic effects on CYP-mediated TST metabolism were observed on PND 65,69, in the absence of any of systemic toxicity. The levels of TST 6, - and 2, -hydroxylation and dehydrogenation showed the highest level of reduction, suggesting CYP 3A and 2C families as the major target of LIN induced effects. All changes were almost recovered on PND 100. No effects on aromatase activity were evidenced. Overall, these findings provide useful information for a better characterization of the LIN mode of action. They suggest that LIN-induced toxicity in males is linked to an impairment of steroid hormone homeostasis, due to CYP-mediated TST catabolism modulation and differs from LIN receptor-mediated mechanism previously reported in females. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Helplessness in the Tail Suspension Test Is Associated with an Increase in Ethanol Intake and Its Rewarding Effect in Female Mice

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2005
Yann Pelloux
Background: Depression is frequently observed in drug abusers. However, depression may be a primary factor of predisposition to drug abuse or a consequence of drug abuse. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a preexisting depressive-like state/helplessness on subsequent alcohol responsiveness in mice. Methods: Male and female CD1 mice were selected according to their immobility time in the tail suspension test, and only mice with "high immobility" and "low immobility" time were retained. Using a two-bottle free-choice paradigm, these mice were given continuous access to tap water or solutions of ethanol (3,20% v/v), quinine (12.5,50 mg/liter), or sucrose (1,4% w/v). In female mice, rewarding and aversive effects of ethanol (1.5 and 3 g/kg, intraperitoneally) were also investigated using the conditioned place preference and the conditioned taste aversion paradigms. Results: Female mice were more immobile and drank more ethanol than male mice. No striking sex difference was observed in quinine consumption. Sucrose intake was higher in female than in male mice, whatever the solution concentration. At the 4% concentrated solution, a sucrose-induced increase in daily fluid intake was observed only in female mice. Female mice with high immobility time (HI) consumed more ethanol at the highest concentration than female mice with low immobility time (LI), whereas no difference was observed between HI and LI male mice. Moreover, whereas LI female mice failed to express place conditioning induced by the 3-g/kg dose of ethanol, HI female mice were strongly responsive to the rewarding effect of this high ethanol dose. Ethanol dose-dependently induced a conditioned taste aversion with a similar magnitude in both LI and HI female mice. Conclusions: The findings indicate that female CD1 mice tend to drink greater amounts of ethanol or sucrose solutions than male CD1 mice, suggesting that female mice may be a better model of excessive alcohol intake. Furthermore, no relationship was found between immobility scores and ethanol consumption in male mice. On the contrary, within female mice, HI mice consumed higher amounts of ethanol than LI mice probably because they experienced greater rewarding effects of ethanol. The present results support the hypothesis that depressive-like responses may predispose to ethanol abuse in female mice. [source]

Tails of the unexpected: palatal medial edge epithelium is no more specialized than other embryonic epithelium

NL Brown
Structured Abstract Authors ,, Brown NL, Sandy JR Objective ,, To determine whether palatal medial edge epithelium (MEE) is specialized in its ability to disappear compared with other embryonic, non-palatal, epithelium. Subjects ,, Embryonic tissues harvested from CD1 mice. Methods ,, Organs were cultured in 2 ml of DMEM/F12 supplemented with 300 ,g/ml l-glutamine and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. Organs were cultured under various conditions including opposing other organs and opposing an inert material for a period of 6 days. Tissues were then processed for histological examination. Results ,, MEE of shelves opposing nothing persisted, whereas MEE of shelves contacting another shelf disappeared. When a tail was placed against a palatal shelf the MEE disappeared, as did the epithelium from the tail, resulting in fusion between the shelf and tail. Furthermore, when palatal shelves were placed against an inert material the MEE disappeared, suggesting pressure alone is a sufficient stimulus to initiate disappearance of the MEE, and that the interaction between the two palatal shelves is not a prerequisite for the disappearance of MEE. Moreover, when two embryonic tails were cultured in close apposition they fused, as did paired limbs. Non-palatal epithelia also disappeared after contact with inert materials. Epithelial disappearance began within 24 h of contact, but there was an age limit. Conclusion ,, These findings suggest that embryonic epithelium from non-specific sites around the body has the ability to disappear with mechanical contact resulting in fusion of tissues. MEE may not be as specialized as once thought. [source]