Broodstock

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Broodstock

  • captive broodstock

  • Terms modified by Broodstock

  • broodstock diet
  • broodstock management

  • Selected Abstracts


    Sturgeons in Greece: a review

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    I. Paschos
    Summary In the past, sturgeons were practically unknown in Greece, both to the public and to scientists, the latter not having had the opportunity to study wild populations of the four native species. Populations of stellate sturgeon (,cipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771), Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii Bonaparte, 1836), and beluga sturgeon (Huso huso L., 1758) gradually collapsed by the end of the 1970s. Only the River Evros (Thrace, N.W. Greece) sustained a small fishery and caviar canning operation with European sturgeon (A.,sturio L., 1758) until 1975. Collapse of stocks was mainly attributed to overfishing, pollution and damming. Sturgeons became widely known after initial farming efforts by the Municipal Hatchery at Lake Ioannina in 1992. Broodstock or fertilized eggs of species with high aquaculture potential, such as sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L., 1758), Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt, 1833), bester hybrid (A.,ruthenus ×H. huso), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula Walbaum, 1792), Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) were imported into Greece between 1992 and 2004. Hatchery technology, larval rearing and production systems are reviewed in this paper and, despite problems, past and present efforts appear to meet a particular interest of the aquaculture sector as well as of those interested in the restoration of wild stocks. [source]


    Progress Toward Year-round Spawning of Southern Flounder Broodstock by Manipulation of Photoperiod and Temperature

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 3 2006
    Wade O. Watanabe
    Reliable methods have been developed for controlled spawning of captive southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, broodstock during their natural winter (December,February) spawning season. From 1999 to 2004, we evaluated the effects of manipulation of photoperiod and temperature on both advance and delay spawning to produce viable embryos throughout the year. Wild-caught adult broodstock were held in 4.8- to 7.0-m3 controlled-environment tanks at a sex ratio of approximately 12 females to 4 males. Broodstock were subjected to different artificial photothermal conditioning regimes: extended winter (EW), accelerated (A-10-, A-6-, A-4.5-, and A-3.8-mo regimes), and delayed (D-16- and D-14-mo regimes), with gradual and abrupt transitions, respectively, from long to short daylengths. Under an EW cycle, fish were exposed to constant short daylengths (10 L: 14 D) after the winter solstice in January. Eighty-seven natural spawnings from December to April produced 18.3 × 106 eggs, with 20.9% hatching successfully (i.e., overall egg viability). Under an A-10-mo cycle, rate of decrease in daylength was accelerated after the summer solstice in July, to reach winter conditions in October. Seven induced spawning trials from October to November produced 897 × 103 eggs, with 40.4% viability. Under an A-6-mo cycle, rate of change of photoperiod was accelerated after the winter solstice in January, to reach winter conditions in July. Three induced spawning trials in July produced 550 × 103 eggs, with 14.7% viability. Under an A-4.5-mo cycle, broodstock exposed to EW from January through April were exposed to an accelerated cycle to reach winter conditions by October. Four induced spawning trials from September to November produced 729 × 103 eggs, with 28.7% viability. Under an A-3.8-mo cycle, broodstock exposed to EW conditions from January through April were exposed to an accelerated cycle to reach winter conditions by September. Five induced spawning trials from September to November produced 510 × 103 eggs, with 45.9% viability. Under a D-16-mo cycle, fish were exposed to a decelerated decline in photoperiod after the summer solstice in July, to reach winter conditions in May, when atretic females were observed. Under a D-14-mo cycle, fish were exposed to constant summer conditions from December through mid-June and then to an abrupt decline in photoperiod to winter conditions in late June. Six induced spawning trials from September to November produced 763 × 103 eggs, with 13.0% viability. Production of viable embryos was greatest during the extended winter because of abundant natural spawnings. While successful natural spawnings were rare during the fall or summer, viable embryos were produced through induced spawnings during all seasons of the year, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences in egg viability. Extended winter conditions prolonged spawning from 3 to 5 mo. Accelerated (3.8,10 mo) regimes were effective in producing viable embryos from summer through fall, but a minimum of 5 mo was required to complete gonadal recrudescence. While constant long daylengths after the summer solstice delayed gonadal recrudescence, with spawning obtained 2.5 mo after an abrupt reduction to short daylengths, a decelerated decline in photoperiod did not. Artificial control of daylength enabled precise control of gonadal recrudescence and year-round spawning in southern flounder without adverse effects on the quality of eggs and larvae and will improve availability of seedstock for commercial aquaculturists. [source]


    Preliminary investigations on the effects of dietary lipid on the spawning performance and egg quality of black sea bass Centropristis striata L

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 16 2009
    Christopher D Bentley
    Abstract Adult black sea bass Centropristis striata broodstock (N=162) were fed three different dietary treatments: two commercially prepared diets with 45% protein and two different lipid levels (12% and 20%) (diets 1 and 2), and a diet of frozen Atlantic silversides Menidia menidia (SS, diet 3). Broodstock were held under controlled photothermal conditions and induced to spawn with an LHRHa pellet (72 ,g kg,1 bw). Dietary lipid had pronounced effects on spawning performance and egg quality. Diet 3 (SS) produced a significantly (P<0.05) higher fertilization success (22.4%) than diets 1 (0.6%) and 2 (4.8%). The hatching success of fertilized eggs was similar in all diets (range=40,58.6%), but only two spawns from diet 1 (12% lipid) yielded viable yolk-sac larvae (YSL). Diet 3 (SS) also produced significantly more YSL per female (21.8 × 103) than the diet 1 (0.3 × 103). Eggs from diet 3 (SS) contained a significantly greater proportion of n-3 series fatty acids, with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as the largest fraction. Eggs from commercially prepared dietary treatments contained significantly more n-6 fatty acids. The poor spawning performance of fish fed diet 1 (12% lipid) may be related to higher levels of linoleic acid and lower levels of DHA in the diet. [source]


    Dietary effects of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid levels on egg and larval quality, and the fatty acid composition of the eggs of Chilean flounder Paralichthys adspersus broodstock

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 12 2009
    Rodolfo Wilson
    Abstract The effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) on eggs and larval quality were investigated in the Chilean flounder Paralichthys adspersus. Broodstock were fed with three formulated diets with similar proximate compositions but different n-3 HUFA (2.1%, 3.1% or 4.1%) estimated levels from 5 months before and during the spawning period. The diet with an intermediate n-3 HUFA level resulted in a significantly higher (P<0.05) percentage of buoyant eggs (68.2 ± 2.9%), fertilization (92.8 ± 3.9%), normal cell cleavages (93.5 ± 1.9%), hatching rate (87.7 ± 4.1%) and normal larvae (76.3 ± 3.7%) compared with the other two diets. In contrast, high levels of n-3 HUFA produced larvae with a higher survival capacity when subjected to fasting. The diet with the lowest content of n-3 HUFA produces lower quality eggs and larvae. The n-3 HUFA level in eggs increased with an increase in the dietary level, and the n-3/n-6 ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. The DHA/EPA and EPA/ARA ratios of 2 and 4 in eggs, respectively, were associated with improved egg and larval quality and were similar to the ratios found in eggs from wild broodstock. Attainment of optimal fatty acid contents in broodstock diets is one of the key factors for producing the high-quality spawning required for managed culture of this flounder. [source]


    Dietary vitamin C and E supplementation and reproduction of milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 7 2000
    A C Emata
    Milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal broodstock (11 years old, average body weight 5.23,5.73 kg) reared in 10-m-diameter by 3-m-deep floating net cages (31,36 fish per cage) at SEAFDEC AQD's Igang Marine Substation in Guimaras Island, central Philippines, were fed daily at 3% of total body weight formulated diets (36% protein, 7,8% lipid) supplemented with 0.1% vitamin C, 0.05% vitamin E, both vitamin C and E or no vitamin supplementation (control) for 3 years. Reproductive performance was assessed in an attempt to determine the optimum nutrition for successful spawning of milkfish. The total egg production, mean number of eggs per spawning, number of spawns and mean egg diameter were not affected by dietary vitamin C and E supplementation. However, broodstock given dietary supplementation of vitamin C alone or in combination with vitamin E had a higher percentage of spawns with higher (> 90%) percentage egg viability, hatching and cumulative survival rate than those of the control. Broodstock given dietary vitamin E supplementation alone had few spawns, which made the results difficult to analyse. The results confirm the essentiality of vitamin C supplementation in producing more spawns with good egg and larval quality. The production of an adequate volume of good quality eggs and larvae to support hatchery operation is necessary to offset the huge investment in broodstock development, as it takes at least 5 years for milkfish to attain sexual maturation and spawning. [source]


    Comparative analysis of cost factors in sturgeon fingerling production in Iranian hatcheries (2000,2004)

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    H. Salehi
    Summary Production cost analysis in aquaculture is an essential exercise to assist farm managers. Economic assessment of a farm operation also provides the basis to formulate governmental aquaculture and enhancement policies in many regions. The present study employed questionnaires and interviewed managers while also using governmental statistics to gain insight into production cost variables in Iranian sturgeon hatcheries. Within a decade, production of sturgeon fingerlings for release and stock enhancement increased in Iran to more than 21 million fingerlings by 2004. Costs and contributions of various production factors were determined using data obtained from a questionnaire involving all hatcheries between 2000 and 2004. A team of experts completed the questionnaire data sets while conducting interviews at all sturgeon centres and other related departments. From 2000 to 2004 the contribution of A. persicus was 79% of the total number of sturgeon fingerlings produced followed by A. nudiventris with 7.5% and Huso huso with 6.6%. Among the various expenditures between 2000 and 2004, the costs for permanent and part-time employees contributed the greatest share of total costs, averaging 44%, with a noticeable declining trend from 51% in 2000 to 36% in 2004. Obtaining and incubating fertilized eggs averaged 22% of total costs, increasing during the same time period from 6 to 35%, respectively. On average, the 2000,2004 production cost for a single sturgeon fingerling was estimated at Rials 1667 (US$ 0.20), increasing from Rials 992 (US$ 0.12) to Rials 2623 (US$ 0.29) over these 4 years. Permanent staff at a hatchery was determined as being the principal cost, followed by costs for obtaining fertilized eggs (including broodstock handling). Over the 5-year study period the results indicated that costs for part-time labour declined yearly and, conversely, the costs of obtaining broodstocks as well as fertilizing and incubating eggs increased. Considering the background of hatchery production and stock enhancement of sturgeon species and the results of fishing data, it is possible to arrive at a first estimate of the potential contribution of Persian sturgeon farming to the total catch in Iranian waters; it is assumed that these increases were most likely through stock enhancement. [source]


    Stock structure of pallid sturgeon analyzed with microsatellite loci

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    A. W. Schrey
    Summary Recovery efforts for the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) include supplementation of wild stocks with hatchery reared progeny. Identifying the extent of genetic stock structure, which has previously been detected in samples from the range extremes, will help to determine whether stock transfers might be harmful. DNA microsatellite genotypes were screened in pallid sturgeon from the upper Missouri River, lower Missouri River, middle Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River and analyzed using a combination of Bayesian model-based and more traditional F-statistic based methods to characterize genetic differentiation. Scaphirhynchus specimens were collected by researchers active in the recovery effort and genotypes were screened at 16 microsatellite loci. Because there is considerable genetic and morphological overlap between pallid sturgeon, shovelnose sturgeon, and their hybrids, a combination of morphological and genetic techniques were used to eliminate shovelnose and possible hybrids from the sample. Genetic differentiation was detected among samples (overall , = 0.050, P = 0.001). Pairwise ,, genetic distances, and Bayesian assignment testing reveal that pallid sturgeon from the upper Missouri River are the most distinct group with pairwise comparisons of pallid sturgeon among all the remaining samples exhibiting lower , values, higher genetic distances, and self assignment scores. Our results indicate that using local broodstock, when available, should be used for pallid sturgeon propagation. If local broodstock are not available, geographically proximate individuals would limit genetic differences between native and stocked individuals. [source]


    Conservation and collection efforts for the endangered Alabama sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus suttkusi)

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    S. J. Rider
    Summary The Alabama sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus suttkusi) is the rarest and most endangered sturgeon species in North America. Over an 8-year period, the Alabama Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service cumulatively expended 2447 man-days in efforts to collect Alabama sturgeon broodstock in an attempt to initiate a conservation propagation program. Out of nearly 29 000 fishes collected between March 1997 and May 2005, only five were Alabama sturgeon. Attempts to spawn and propagate these sturgeons were unsuccessful, and all have since died in captivity. In context with past collection efforts and anecdotal accounts, these results indicate that the Alabama sturgeon is becoming increasingly rare with the passage of time. Although there is evidence that some level of recruitment continued to occur in the Alabama River during the past decade, the increasing rarity of Alabama sturgeon suggests that mortality rates are exceeding recruitment. [source]


    The ontogeny of the alimentary tract of larval pandora, Pagellus erythrinus L.

    JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 2004
    V. Micale
    The ontogenesis of the alimentary tract and its associated structures (liver, pancreas, gall bladder) was studied in common pandora Pagellus eythrinus L., a promising species for diversification in Mediterranean aquaculture. Mass production of pandora has been limited so far by high larval and juvenile mortalities, which appear to be related to nutritional deficiencies. The development of the larval digestive system was studied histologically from hatching (0 DAH) until day 50 (50 DAH) in reared specimens, obtained by natural spawning from a broodstock adapted to captivity. At first feeding (3,4 DAH) both the mouth and anus had opened and the digestive tract was differentiated in four portions: buccopharynx, oesophagus, incipient stomach and intestine. The pancreas, liver and gall bladder were also differentiated at this stage. Soon after the commencement of exogenous feeding (5,6 DAH), the anterior intestinal epithelium showed large vacuoles indicating the capacity for absorption of lipids, whereas acidophilic supranuclear inclusions indicating protein absorption were observed in the posterior intestinal epithelium. Both the bile and main pancreatic ducts had opened in the anterior intestine, just after the pyloric sphincter, at this stage. Intestinal coiling was apparent since 4 DAH, while mucosal folding began at 10 DAH. Scattered mucous cells occurred in the oral cavity and the intestine, while they were largely diffused in the oesophagus. Gastric glands and pyloric caeca were firstly observed at 28 DAH and appeared well developed by 41 DAH, indicating the transition from larval to juvenile stage and the acquisition of an adult mode of digestion. [source]


    Gonadal maturation in the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo: a comparison between a farmed and a wild broodstock

    JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 2004
    V. Micale
    The blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo(Brünnich, 1768) has been regarded as a possible alternative to traditionally cultured Mediterranean species such as seabream and seabass, due to its high market value and good adaptation to captivity. Broodstock establishment and management represent the first step towards reliable production of eggs and fry, which is required to develop aquaculture of this new species. Two different broodstocks were tested for gonadal maturation and spawning, one constituting of wild fish caught as juveniles and reared in tanks until sexual maturity (4 years), and one assembled from wild adult fish caught during or just before the reproductive season. All fish were maintained under the same rearing conditions and fed the same diet. Gonadal stripping and biopsies were performed weekly to monitor maturation in both males and females. Ovarian samples were staged for maturity on the basis of follicular diameter and migration of germinal vesicle. Sperm samples were tested for density (number of spermatozoa ml,1) and motility. The fish reared in captivity reached ovarian maturity during the breeding season of the wild stock. Eggs were obtained by stripping from both farmed and wild specimens, but appeared degenerated as a result of being retained too long in the ovarian cavity due to the absence of spontaneous spawning. Spermiation was prolonged in the farmed fish, but appeared to be blocked in the wild breeders after first sampling. However, the sperm was very viscous and the motile spermatozoa did not exceed 10%. [source]


    Experimental vertical transmission of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) from brooders to progeny in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Artemia

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 1 2007
    R Sudhakaran
    Abstract White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in M. rosenbergii and Artemia. Prawn broodstock inoculated with MrNV and XSV by oral or immersion challenge survived without any clinical signs of WTD. The brooders spawned 5,7 days after inoculation and the eggs hatched. The survival rate of larvae gradually decreased, and 100% mortality was observed at the post-larvae (PL) stage. Whitish muscle, the typical sign of WTD, was seen in advanced larval developmental stages. The ovarian tissue and fertilized eggs were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) whereas the larval stages showed positive by RT nested PCR (nRT-PCR). In Artemia, reproductive cysts and nauplii derived from challenged brooders were normal and survival rates were within the expected range for normal rearing conditions. The reproductive cysts were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by RT-PCR whereas the nauplii showed MrNV/XSV-positive by nRT-PCR. The PL of M. rosenbergii fed nauplii derived from challenged Artemia brooders died at 9 days post-inoculum with clinical signs of WTD. [source]


    Ultrastructural pathology of Baltic salmon, Salmo salar L., yolk sac fry with the M74 syndrome

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 3 2002
    J Lundström
    The ultrastructural pathology in liver, brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle of Baltic salmon yolk sac fry with the M74 syndrome is described. In the clinical stage of disease, the main pathological findings in the liver were a depletion of glycogen, condensation of nuclear chromatin, hydropic degeneration of mitochondria and a dilation of the bile canaliculi. In the terminal stage, additional findings were lipid accumulation and myelin whorls in the cytoplasm. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was degranulated and vesiculated and in some individuals, it formed concentric membranous whorls. Mitochondria showed several additional lesions, such as matrix densities, pleomorphism and cristae abnormalities. Skeletal myocytes were degenerated, and intracellular lipid accumulation was seen in the myocardium. In the brain, an increased frequency of cells exhibiting pyknosis or karryorhexis was recorded. The cytoplasm of these cells formed an amorphous mass of moderate density. The evaluation of brain and skeletal muscle was complicated by sporadic occurrence of pathological findings in the reference material, i.e. clinically healthy Baltic salmon yolk sac fry. As these yolk sac fry are suspected to have a subclinical thiamine deficiency, reference material in future studies should include salmon yolk sac fry from Atlantic populations or originating from reared broodstock. [source]


    A Microsatellite DNA Marker Developed for Identifying Disease-resistant Population of Giant Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2 2009
    Kuntal Mukherjee
    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) poses major problems that result in huge economic losses each year in shrimp aquaculture throughout the world. In the present study, microsatellite-based DNA fingerprints have been compared between naturally occurring WSSV disease-resistant and susceptible populations of giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, to find DNA markers. For the first time, we report here a microsatellite locus, which, after amplification by polymerase chain reaction, provides a highly statistically significant DNA fingerprint of 71 bp, only in disease susceptible populations but not in disease-resistant shrimp populations, whereas a 317 bp band is common in both. The absence of the former DNA marker will be very useful to identify disease-resistant broodstock of P. monodon for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs to generate disease-free shrimps (P. monodon) in the aquaculture industry. [source]


    Progress Toward Year-round Spawning of Southern Flounder Broodstock by Manipulation of Photoperiod and Temperature

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 3 2006
    Wade O. Watanabe
    Reliable methods have been developed for controlled spawning of captive southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, broodstock during their natural winter (December,February) spawning season. From 1999 to 2004, we evaluated the effects of manipulation of photoperiod and temperature on both advance and delay spawning to produce viable embryos throughout the year. Wild-caught adult broodstock were held in 4.8- to 7.0-m3 controlled-environment tanks at a sex ratio of approximately 12 females to 4 males. Broodstock were subjected to different artificial photothermal conditioning regimes: extended winter (EW), accelerated (A-10-, A-6-, A-4.5-, and A-3.8-mo regimes), and delayed (D-16- and D-14-mo regimes), with gradual and abrupt transitions, respectively, from long to short daylengths. Under an EW cycle, fish were exposed to constant short daylengths (10 L: 14 D) after the winter solstice in January. Eighty-seven natural spawnings from December to April produced 18.3 × 106 eggs, with 20.9% hatching successfully (i.e., overall egg viability). Under an A-10-mo cycle, rate of decrease in daylength was accelerated after the summer solstice in July, to reach winter conditions in October. Seven induced spawning trials from October to November produced 897 × 103 eggs, with 40.4% viability. Under an A-6-mo cycle, rate of change of photoperiod was accelerated after the winter solstice in January, to reach winter conditions in July. Three induced spawning trials in July produced 550 × 103 eggs, with 14.7% viability. Under an A-4.5-mo cycle, broodstock exposed to EW from January through April were exposed to an accelerated cycle to reach winter conditions by October. Four induced spawning trials from September to November produced 729 × 103 eggs, with 28.7% viability. Under an A-3.8-mo cycle, broodstock exposed to EW conditions from January through April were exposed to an accelerated cycle to reach winter conditions by September. Five induced spawning trials from September to November produced 510 × 103 eggs, with 45.9% viability. Under a D-16-mo cycle, fish were exposed to a decelerated decline in photoperiod after the summer solstice in July, to reach winter conditions in May, when atretic females were observed. Under a D-14-mo cycle, fish were exposed to constant summer conditions from December through mid-June and then to an abrupt decline in photoperiod to winter conditions in late June. Six induced spawning trials from September to November produced 763 × 103 eggs, with 13.0% viability. Production of viable embryos was greatest during the extended winter because of abundant natural spawnings. While successful natural spawnings were rare during the fall or summer, viable embryos were produced through induced spawnings during all seasons of the year, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences in egg viability. Extended winter conditions prolonged spawning from 3 to 5 mo. Accelerated (3.8,10 mo) regimes were effective in producing viable embryos from summer through fall, but a minimum of 5 mo was required to complete gonadal recrudescence. While constant long daylengths after the summer solstice delayed gonadal recrudescence, with spawning obtained 2.5 mo after an abrupt reduction to short daylengths, a decelerated decline in photoperiod did not. Artificial control of daylength enabled precise control of gonadal recrudescence and year-round spawning in southern flounder without adverse effects on the quality of eggs and larvae and will improve availability of seedstock for commercial aquaculturists. [source]


    Mass Production of Juveniles of the Fat Snook Centropomus parallelus in Brazil

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 4 2002
    Luis Alvarez-Lajonchegre
    A pilot-scale trial to rear fat snook Centropomus parallelus through larval, weaning and nursery phases was conducted in Florianópolis, Brazil. Eggs (96% fertilization) from captive broodstock, induced to spawn using 50 ,g/kg LHRHa were stocked in two 4,000-L cylindrical fiberglass tanks at a mean density of 19.2 eggs/L. Nannochloropsis oculata was stocked with the eggs and maintained at a mean density of 0.5,1.0 ± 106 cells/mL up to 31 dph (31 dph). Hatching averaged 90%. Larvae were fed rotifers Brachionus rotundiformis enriched with an oil emulsion from 3 dph to 36 dph (30,40 rotifers/mL) and Artermia meta-nauplii enriched with Selco from 22 dph to 60 dph (mean 2.9 meta-nauplii/mL). Weaning began at 45 dph with an artificial dry diet NRG (50% protein), supplied together with concentrated and enriched Artemia meta-nauplii. No critical period of mortality was observed during larval rearing. During the 43 days of weaning and nursery, less than 1% mortality was recorded. Food conversion rate during nursery was 1.17, with a change in the coefficient of variation of mean total length of 1.3%. Specific total growth rate in weight was 13.0 %/d and mean growth in total length and total weight were 0.65 mm/d and 24.0 mg/d over the whole rearing trial respectively. Mean total length and total weight of juveniles were 57.6 ± 0.1 mm and 2.11 ± 0.12 g, respectively, and the length-weight relationship was W = 8.29931 ± 10,5 TL3.049607 (r= 0.9986). on 88 dph when the trial was terminated. The condition factor on 88 dph was 1.104. On 88 dph a total of 35,000 juveniles were harvested, overall survival was 25.5% with mean final density of 4.4 fishn and biomass of 6.9 kg/m3. The present trial demonstrated the feasibility of mass production of fat snook. Possible improvements necessary for commercial cultivation of fat snook C. parallelus are discussed. [source]


    Sustained, Natural Spawning of Southern Flounder Paralichthys lethostigma Under an Extended Photothermal Regime

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2 2001
    Wade O. Watanabe
    Hormone-induced spawning of southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma has produced substantial numbers of viable eggs, but wide variations in fertilization and hatch rates have been reported. Recently, sustained natural spawning of southern flounder broodstock, without hormone induction, has been achieved in our laboratory. Adults (average weight = 1.12 kg; N= 25), including 6 captured as juveniles in 1993 and 19 captured as adults during September 1998, were stocked in two 4.8-m3 controlled-environment tanks in October 1998 and held under natural photothermal conditions until January 1999, when an artificial winter photo-period of 10 L:14 D was initiated and then maintained through April 1999. Sex ratio was approximately 13 females:8 males:7 unknown. Natural spawning was observed in early December 1998 and increased in frequency to a peak in March 1999, before declining in late April. Water temperature ranged from 13.9 to 24.5 C during the spawning period. Natural spawnings over 142 d produced a total of 18.3 × 106 eggs, with a mean fertilization rate of 28.0% (range = 0,100%), yielding 4.94 × 106 fertilized eggs. The mean percentage of eggs that remained buoyant in full-strength seawater (34 ppt) was 41.3% (0,98%), while hatching rate of buoyant eggs was 37.3% (0,99%) and survival of yolksac larvae to the first-feeding stage was 30.2% (0,100%). Gonadal biopsies in late April identified six females from both tanks as probable spawners. A preliminary comparison suggests that natural spawning produced much larger numbers of viable eggs per female, with higher egg quality (i.e., fertilization and hatching success) than hormone-induced spawning. In contrast to natural spawning, hormone-induced strip-spawning enabled timing of spawnings to be more precisely controlled. These results suggest that a combination of both natural and hormone-induced spawning of photothermally conditioned fish will help produce the large numbers of eggs required to support commercial production. [source]


    Production, Quality, and Low Temperature Incubation of Eggs of Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua and Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus in Captivity

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 1 2000
    Lawrence J. Buckley
    Atlantic cod Gadus morhua and haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus broodstock maintained under altered regimens of temperature and photoperiod spawned up to 8 mo per year. The cod broodstock produced viable embryos from October through June. The haddock broodstock produced viable embryos from December through May. Egg diameters were largest during the middle of the spawning season when water temperature was at a minimum, resulting in an inverse relationship between egg diameter and water temperature in both species. Egg quality was high, as evaluated by buoyancy, fertilization rate, regularity of early cleavage, and percent viable hatch. Low temperature incubation of cod and haddock eggs extended the embryonic period. Cod embryos tolerated a wider range of temperatures than haddock. High mortality (1 90%) was observed before hatching in haddock embryos incubated at 1 C. Atlantic cod embryos hatched at temperatures as low as ,1 C, extending the embryonic period to 59 d. At 8 C Atlantic cod and haddock embryos hatched in 11,12 d. To determine if extending the embryo incubation time by using low temperatures had a detrimental effect, embryos were incubated through hatch at either 1 C or 6 C, and the larvae from both groups reared at 6 C. Growth and early survival of larvae were comparable in both treatments. [source]


    Correlation Between Two Size Classes of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Its Potential Implications for Selective Breeding Programs

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 1 2000
    Brad J. Argue
    Breeders may assume that the largest brood-stock shrimp were also the largest market shrimp. In this study, 120 market shrimp were individually tagged and grown to broodstock in an earthen pond. There was a significant relationship between market and broodstock weight (P < 0.001) but it was not highly correlated (r = 0.42). There was no correlation between market weight and post-market weight gain (P= 0.477; r= 0.08). Of the largest 20 broodstock, only seven were among the top 20 at market weight. If the goal of a breeding program is to select the fastest growing individuals to market, shrimp should be individually selected at market weight and not as broodstock. [source]


    Long-term effects of translocation and release numbers on fine-scale population structure among coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    WILLIAM H. ELDRIDGE
    Abstract Management actions, such as translocations, reintroductions and supportive breeding, can have both negative and positive effects on population recovery. Several studies have examined the incidence of introgression following such actions, but few studies have explored the effect of release numbers on gene flow between closely related recipient populations. We examined population structure of coho salmon in Puget Sound (Washington State, USA) to evaluate the relationship between the number of individuals transferred between rivers, and the number released within rivers, on inter- and intrariver population divergence. Eleven microsatellite loci were surveyed in 23 hatchery and wild samples collected from 11 rivers within and one hatchery outside Puget Sound. Pairwise genetic divergences between most populations were significant, but the population structure could not be explained by an isolation-by-distance model (Mantel test, P > 0.05). In contrast, we detected significant hatchery influence on population structure. The numbers of fish transferred among rivers between 1952 and 2004 was negatively correlated with differentiation between rivers (partial Mantel test, P = 0.005) but not within rivers (t -test, P = 0.41). Number of fish released from hatcheries that collect broodstock locally was negatively correlated with population structure within rivers (t -test P = 0.002), and between nearby rivers (partial Mantel P = 0.04). Our results indicate that the population structure can, to some degree, be altered by the number of individuals transferred and by local release number of individuals in ongoing artificial propagation programs. The findings presented here emphasize the need to control the number of individuals that are either inadvertently introduced, or are deliberately released under conservation scenarios. [source]


    Characterization of microsatellite loci for the redbanded seabream, Pagrus auriga (Teleostei, Sparidae)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES, Issue 2 2006
    MARIAN PONCE
    Abstract The redbanded seabream Pagrus auriga (Teleostei, Sparidae) is a species of a high commercial value in Spain. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of both wild and cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the redbanded seabream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 64 individuals tested, 22 of which were wild specimens, and 42 were individuals from a captive reproductive broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies. [source]


    Temperature effects on sex determination and ontogenetic gene expression of the aromatases cyp19a and cyp19b, and the estrogen receptors esr1 and esr2 in atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 12 2006
    Solveig van Nes
    Abstract The aromatase (CYP19) and estrogen receptor (ESR) play important roles in the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation of lower vertebrates. Several studies have proven these mechanisms to be temperature sensitive, which can influence the direction of phenotypic gender development. A temperature study was conducted to examine the effect of temperature on the sex differentiation in farmed Atlantic halibut. Sexually undifferentiated larvae were exposed to 7°C, 10°C, or 13°C during gonadal differentiation. Temperature effects on the transcription rate of the aromatase genes cyp19a (ovary type) and cyp19b (brain type) and the ESR genes esr1 and esr2 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. With increasing temperatures, both cyp19a mRNA levels and the female incidence showed a decreasing trend, thus strongly indicating a relation between the expression of cyp19a and morphological ovary differentiation. In contrast to cyp19a, the levels of cyp19b, esr1, and esr2 mRNA strongly increased in all temperature groups throughout the study period, and did not show obvious temperature-related expression patterns. The present data provide evidence that posthatching temperature exposure significantly affects the expression of cyp19a mRNA during the developmental period and that high temperature possibly influences genetic sex determination in Atlantic halibut. Though, the female incidence never exceeded 50%, suggesting that only the homogametic (XX) female is thermolabile. So whereas temperature treatment is not likely suitable for direct feminization in halibut, the possibility for high-temperature production of XX neomales for broodstock to obtain all-female offspring by crossing with XX females is suggested. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 73: 1481,1490, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Effect of different diets on larval production, quality and fatty acid profile of the marine ornamental shrimp Lysmata amboinensis (de Man, 1888), using wild larvae as a standard

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 5 2009
    R. CALADO
    Abstract The present work evaluates the influence of broodstock diets [Marine Cuisine®, MC, MC supplemented with highly unsaturated fatty acid- (HUFA) enriched Artemia biomass , MC + AB, and MC supplemented with squid , MC + S] on larval production, newly hatched and early zoeal stage survival and fatty acid profile of newly hatched larvae of Lysmata amboinensis. These parameters are compared with those from larvae hatched from embryos spawned in the wild. The number (±SE) of larvae produced with MC and MC + S (1077 ± 219 and 1103 ± 184, respectively) was similar to that in broodstock carrying embryos spawned in the wild (1224 ± 111), while those fed MC + AB displayed significantly lower values (1044 ± 161). Larvae produced with MC + AB displayed lower survival for all starvation periods, while larvae spawned in the wild displayed the highest survival. No larvae resisted 144 h of starvation and none moulted to zoea II. The fatty acid comparison revealed that larvae from embryos spawned in the wild displayed the highest levels of DHA, as well as higher DHA/EPA and n -3/n -6 ratios. These results suggest that broodstock diets commonly used to promote ornamental shrimp's maturation (based on mixed frozen components) are far from being optimal. [source]


    Body lipid and fatty acid composition in male gilthead seabream broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle: effects of a diet lacking n-3 and n-6 HUFA

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 1 2009
    M.V. MARTÍN
    Abstract Total lipid (TL), lipid classes and fatty acid composition of neutral (NL) and polar (PL) lipids were studied in the gonads, liver and muscle of gilthead seabream males (Sparus aurata) fed a control diet (diet C) or an n-3 and n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA)-deficient diet (diet D), at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Between pre-spermatogenesis (November) and spermatogenesis (March), the lipid content was high and particularly rich in cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in gonads from both dietary groups. At post-spermatogenesis (June), TL and especially PL dramatically decreased in the gonads from both groups. However, at this period diet C fish gonads were richer in triacylglycerides (TAG) than those from diet D fish. The liver lipid contents and particularly TAG were over 200% lower in June than in March for both groups. Nevertheless, the most noteworthy depletion of lipids during this period was achieved by the n-3 HUFA in diet D fish. Conversely, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) did not decrease in NL or PL from gonads and liver in groups C and D. Muscle lipids from diet C fish were relatively insensitive to seasonal influences. However, in June, the muscle TAG content was significantly reduced in diet D fish. [source]


    The growth and gonadal maturation of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) broodstock fed differently heated soybean-based diets

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 4 2006
    A.A. ADEWUMI
    Abstract An investigation was carried out to assess the growth and gonadal maturation of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) fed differently heated soybean diets in concrete tanks. Four hundred and eighty male and female C. gariepinus (182 ± 10 g for females and 208 ± 5 g for males) were randomly distributed in groups into hapa nets. Iso-nitrogenous (310 g kg,1 crude protein) and iso-caloric diets (355 Kcal kg,1) prepared from raw soybean (D0) and soybean autoclaved for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min labelled D0, D5, D10, D15, D20, D25 and D30, were fed to the fish for 84 days. The fish meal based diet tagged DFM served as control. The male and female broodfish fed the fish-meal-based diet and diet D25 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) growth performance, gonad maturation, gonadosomatic index, relative fecundity and percentage egg fertilization and hatchability than the fish fed the other diets. The females had significantly higher (P < 0.05) weight increases and healthier condition over their male counterparts fed the same diets. This study showed that diet D25 was found to be the best substitute for fish meal that provided adequate nutrients required for the formation of genital products that produced strong offspring in C. gariepinus broodstock culture. [source]


    The effect of vitamin A supplementation in broodstock feed on reproductive performance and larval quality in Penaeus chinensis

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 5 2004
    L. Mengqing
    Abstract The effect of feeding four semi-purified diets A1, A2, A3, A4, containing different vitamin A acetate levels 0, 20, 40, 60 mg kg,1 diet, respectively, on fecundity, egg hatching rate, larval survival rate and vitamin A content in eggs of Chinese shrimp (Penaeus chinensis) broodstock was compared with a fresh clam diet (control) in a 60-day feeding trial. The broodstock shrimp fed the diet with 60 mg kg,1 vitamin A acetate added exhibited significantly higher fecundity (P < 0.01). Hatching rate was highest with diet A4 (P < 0.05), whereas hatching rates were similar fed diets A1, A2, A3. Increasing levels of vitamin A in broodstock diet resulted in improvement in larval quality. The vitamin A levels in shrimp eggs from broodstock fed with diet A4 were higher compared with those from broodstock fed with diet A1, A2 (P < 0.01). The fecundity and hatching percentages were positively correlated with the vitamin A content in eggs in the present study. The results of this study showed that higher level of vitamin A in broodstock diet may have positive effects on fecundity and larval quality in P. chinensis. [source]


    Experimental broodstock diets as partial fresh food substitutes in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei B.

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 4 2002
    R. WOUTERS
    In the first experiment, conducted in a research facility, Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock were fed either a 100% fresh food control treatment (FRE, consisting of frozen squid, oyster, mussel and enriched Artemia biomass in a 2.3:1.4:1.3:1 dry matter ratio) or one of the two treatments in which 50% [dry matter (DM)] of the fresh food was substituted with experimental artificial diets: a dry diet based on freeze-dried Artemia biomass (ART) and a control dry diet (CON). In the second experiment, conducted in a commercial hatchery, shrimp broodstock were fed either a fresh ration (FRE, consisting of frozen squid, polychaetes and enriched Artemia biomass in a 2.5:1.5:1 DM ratio) or the same experimental artificial diets (ART and CON) replacing 50% of the DM by elimination of polychaetes and Artemia biomass. In experiment 1 treatments CON and ART produced better results (P=0.05) than treatment FRE in terms of spawn performance and egg production per female. In experiment 2 no differences were detected among treatments FRE and CON whereas treatment ART performed better (P=0.05) in terms of spawning, egg production per female and spermatophore quality. Broodstock survival and offspring quality did not differ between treatments in either experiment. [source]


    The effects of water source and secondary water treatment on flame angelfish Centropyge loriculus (Günther) reproduction

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
    Chatham K Callan
    Abstract This study was conducted to determine whether water source and water treatment affected flame angelfish (Centropyge loriculus) reproduction. Flame angelfish broodstock were maintained and monitored for reproductive performance (fecundity, egg fertilization rates and egg viability) in either untreated well-water (WW), sterilized ocean water (OW) or WW treated by intensive recirculation treatment (biological filtration, protein skimming, UV sterilization and mechanical filtration) (RAS). Results of this experiment indicated that although pairs maintained in WW initially exhibited good spawning performance, fecundity, egg fertilization rates and egg viability declined after 25 weeks. Treatment of WW by recirculation did not significantly improve flame angelfish reproductive performance with only moderately improved fecundity compared with pairs in the WW treatment. In contrast, pairs held in sterilized OW exhibited significantly greater fecundity, egg fertilization rates and egg viability from week 25 onwards than pairs in either the WW or RAS treatments. However, in the process of developing OW biosecurity protocols, we found that sterilization of OW using chlorine at levels >25 mg L,1 (30 min) negatively affected flame angelfish egg fertilization rates indicating that alternative methods of water sterilization may be warranted. [source]


    Egg and larval quality, and egg fatty acid composition of Eurasian perch breeders (Perca fluviatilis) fed different dietary DHA/EPA/AA ratios

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 9 2010
    Emilie Henrotte
    Abstract In Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), the variability in spawning quality is a major limiting factor for successful production, especially when breeders are fed with an artificial diet. The influence of the dietary DHA/EPA/AA ratio on the egg and larval quality and on the fatty acid and lipid class composition of eggs has been investigated in perch broodstock. Two experimental diets (16% lipids) with two different DHA/EPA/AA ratios, D1 (3/2/2) and D2 (23/9/1), were compared with a natural diet consisting of cultured carp juveniles, CC (10/10/1) and with a commercial diet for salmonids, CDS (14/16/1). Percentages of fertilization and hatching were comparable between fish fed D1, D2 and CC, with the highest hatching rate observed for D1 (63.5 ± 3.8%). These diets supported better values than the CDS. Larval survival and TL50 observed after osmotic stress were higher for the D1 group, followed by larvae produced by fish fed D2 and CC. Larvae from fish fed D1, D2 and CC were significantly more robust than larvae from the CDS group. Differences were observed regarding the fatty acid (FA) profile in the eggs, which was related to the dietary FA composition. The results indicate that a ratio of 3/2/2 seemed to be effective for obtaining eggs and larvae of good quality. [source]


    Fatty acid requirements in ontogeny of marine and freshwater fish

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 5 2010
    Douglas R. Tocher
    Abstract Essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements vary qualitatively and quantitatively with both species and during ontogeny of fish, with early developmental stages and broodstock being critical periods. Environment and/or trophic level are major factors, with freshwater/diadromous species generally requiring C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) whereas marine fish have a strict requirement for long-chain PUFA, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. Other than marine fish larvae, defining precise quantitative or semi-quantitative EFA requirements in fish have received less attention in recent years. However, the changes to feed formulations being forced upon the aquaculture industry by the pressing need for sustainable development, namely the replacement of marine fish meal and oils with plant-derived products, have reintroduced EFA into the research agenda. It is particularly important to note that the physiological requirements of the fish to prevent deficiency pathologies and produce optimal growth may not parallel the requirements for maintaining nutritional quality. For instance, salmonids can be successfully cultured on vegetable oils devoid of long-chain n-3 PUFA but not without potentially compromising their health benefits to the human consumer. Solving this problem will require detailed knowledge of the biochemical and molecular basis of EFA requirements and metabolism. [source]


    Delay of the egg activation process in the Black Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon by manipulation of magnesium levels in spawning water

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
    Pattira Pongtippatee
    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether magnesium (Mg2+) in seawater is required for egg activation of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and whether manipulation of Mg2+ levels can be used to delay the process and thereby synchronize egg activation. Female P. monodon broodstock were allowed to spawn in artificial seawater containing Mg2+ at varying levels with respect to the normal (100%) level: 100%, 50%, 20% and 0%. Egg activation occurred normally at 100% Mg2+, incompletely at 50% and 20% Mg2+ levels and did not occur at all with 0% Mg2+. The fertilization rate with 100% Mg2+ was observed to be 83%, but fertilization failed to take place in all the other groups. The fertilization rate was restored from 0% to 76% following the 20% Mg2+ level treatment when Mg2+ levels returned to normal (100%) as soon as spawning was completed. This study suggests that the level of Mg2+ in seawater plays a vital role in P. monodon egg activation, and that commencement of this process could be delayed by manipulation of the Mg2+ level during and immediately after spawning. [source]