Biosynthetic Capacity (biosynthetic + capacity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Non-invasive detection of the metabolic burden on recombinant microorganisms during fermentation processes,

Th Bachinger
Abstract Heterologous protein production is an important source of therapeutic products. Optimisation of such bioprocesses by adjustment of the expression rate of the heterologous protein to the biosynthetic capacity of the cell metabolism would benefit from an online method for monitoring the metabolic burden. In this study we evaluated the use of a chemical multi-sensor array for this purpose. Fermentations with a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing human superoxide dismutase (rhSOD) were monitored by the sensor array. The results of isopropyl-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-induced expression were compared with fermentations with a plasmid-free strain. The overproduction of rhSOD, imposing a high metabolic burden on the plasmid-carrying cells, was distinctly and reproducibly observed by the multi-sensor array. The potential of this non-invasive method of non-specific metabolic burden monitoring is demonstrated by the results of the study. 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Collagen gene expression and mechanical properties of intervertebral disc cell,alginate cultures

Anthony E. Baer
Cells of the intervertebral disc have a limited capacity for matrix repair that may contribute to the onset and progression of degenerative disc changes. In this study, the biosynthetic capacity of cells isolated from specific regions of the porcine intervertebral disc was evaluated in vitro. Using a competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique, gene expression levels for types I and II collagen were quantified in cells cultured for up to 21 d in a three-dimensional alginate culture system and compared to levels obtained for cells in vivo. The mechanical properties of cell-alginate constructs were measured in compression and shear after periods of culture up to 16 weeks. Cells from the anulus fibrosus expressed the most type I collagen mRNA in vivo and in vitro, while cells from the transition zone expressed the most type II collagen mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Mechanical testing results indicate that a mechanically functional matrix did not form at any time during the culture period; rather, decreases of up to 50% were observed in the compressive and shear moduli of the cell,alginate constructs compared to alginate with no cells. Together with results of prior studies, these results suggest that intervertebral disc cells maintain characteristics of their phenotype when cultured in alginate, but the molecules they synthesize are not able to form a mechanically functional matrix in vitro. 2001 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Aging stimulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in human periodontal ligament cells after the application of compressive force

Kotoe Mayahara
Background and Objectives:, Some clinical studies show that alveolar crestal bone loss is higher in adults than in young patients during orthodontic treatment, but the causes of such a phenomenon have not been elucidated. It is known that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a proinflammatory agent and one of the potent osteoclast-inducing factors, and is produced by human periodontal ligament cells in response to orthodontic force. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related change in the biosynthetic capacity of PGE2 and its regulatory gene, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) from periodontal ligament cells in response to mechanical stress. Methods:, Compressive force of 2 g/cm2 was applied for 3,48 h to periodontal ligament cells obtained from human donors aged 9,50 years, and COX-2 mRNA expression in and PGE2 production by the periodontal ligament cells in response to the compressive force were examined. Results:, Application of a compressive force of 2 g/cm2 for 3,48 h significantly stimulated these factors in both time- and age-dependent manners. Furthermore, these increases were dramatically larger in periodontal ligament cells obtained from donors over the age of 35. Conclusions:, Periodontal ligament cells obtained from old donors have significantly greater COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in response to compressive force than those from younger donors. The turning point of aging, where significantly larger amounts of theses factors begin production, appears to be around the age of 35. These results may be positively related to the acceleration of alveolar crestal bone loss during orthodontic treatment in adult patients. [source]

How do membrane proteins sense water stress?

Bert Poolman
Summary Maintenance of cell turgor is a prerequisite for almost any form of life as it provides a mechanical force for the expansion of the cell envelope. As changes in extracellular osmolality will have similar physicochemical effects on cells from all biological kingdoms, the responses to osmotic stress may be alike in all organisms. The primary response of bacteria to osmotic upshifts involves the activation of transporters, to effect the rapid accumulation of osmo-protectants, and sensor kinases, to increase the transport and/or biosynthetic capacity for these solutes. Upon osmotic downshift, the excess of cytoplasmic solutes is released via mechanosensitive channel proteins. A number of breakthroughs in the last one or two years have led to tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of osmosensing in bacteria. The possible mechanisms of osmosensing, and the actual evidence for a particular mechanism, are presented for well studied, osmoregulated transport systems, sensor kinases and mechanosensitive channel proteins. The emerging picture is that intracellular ionic solutes (or ionic strength) serve as a signal for the activation of the upshift-activated transporters and sensor kinases. For at least one system, there is strong evidence that the signal is transduced to the protein complex via alterations in the protein,lipid interactions rather than direct sensing of ion concentration or ionic strength by the proteins. The osmotic downshift-activated mechanosensitive channels, on the other hand, sense tension in the membrane but other factors such as hydration state of the protein may affect the equilibrium between open and closed states of the proteins. [source]

Revealing metabolic phenotypes in plants: inputs from NMR analysis

R. G. Ratcliffe
ABSTRACT Assessing the performance of the plant metabolic network, with its varied biosynthetic capacity and its characteristic subcellular compartmentation, remains a considerable challenge. The complexity of the network is such that it is not yet possible to build large-scale predictive models of the fluxes it supports, whether on the basis of genomic and gene expression analysis or on the basis of more traditional measurements of metabolites and their interconversions. This limits the agronomic and biotechnological exploitation of plant metabolism, and it undermines the important objective of establishing a rational metabolic engineering strategy. Metabolic analysis is central to removing this obstacle and currently there is particular interest in harnessing high-throughput and/or large-scale analyses to the task of defining metabolic phenotypes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy contributes to this objective by providing a versatile suite of analytical techniques for the detection of metabolites and the fluxes between them. The principles that underpin the analysis of plant metabolism by NMR are described, including a discussion of the measurement options for the detection of metabolites in vivo and in vitro, and a description of the stable isotope labelling experiments that provide the basis for metabolic flux analysis. Despite a relatively low sensitivity, NMR is suitable for high-throughput system-wide analyses of the metabolome, providing methods for both metabolite fingerprinting and metabolite profiling, and in these areas NMR can contribute to the definition of plant metabolic phenotypes that are based on metabolic composition. NMR can also be used to investigate the operation of plant metabolic networks. Labelling experiments provide information on the operation of specific pathways within the network, and the quantitative analysis of steady-state labelling experiments leads to the definition of large-scale flux maps for heterotrophic carbon metabolism. These maps define multiple unidirectional fluxes between branch-points in the metabolic network, highlighting the existence of substrate cycles and discriminating in favourable cases between fluxes in the cytosol and plastid. Flux maps can be used to define a functionally relevant metabolic phenotype and the extensive application of such maps in microbial systems suggests that they could have important applications in characterising the genotypes produced by plant genetic engineering. [source]

Extent of cell differentiation and capacity for cartilage synthesis in human adult adipose-derived stem cells: Comparison with fetal chondrocytes

Nastaran Mahmoudifar
Abstract This study evaluated the extent of differentiation and cartilage biosynthetic capacity of human adult adipose-derived stem cells relative to human fetal chondrocytes. Both types of cell were seeded into nonwoven-mesh polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds and cultured under dynamic conditions with and without addition of TGF-,1 and insulin. Gene expression for aggrecan and collagen type II was upregulated in the stem cells in the presence of growth factors, and key components of articular cartilage such as glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II were synthesized in cultured tissue constructs. However, on a per cell basis and in the presence of growth factors, accumulation of GAG and collagen type II were, respectively, 3.4- and 6.1-fold lower in the stem cell cultures than in the chondrocyte cultures. Although the stem cells synthesized significantly higher levels of total collagen than the chondrocytes, only about 2.4% of this collagen was collagen type II. Relative to cultures without added growth factors, treatment of the stem cells with TGF-,1 and insulin resulted in a 59% increase in GAG synthesis, but there was no significant change in collagen production even though collagen type II gene expression was upregulated 530-fold. In contrast, in the chondrocyte cultures, synthesis of collagen type II and levels of collagen type II as a percentage of total collagen more than doubled after growth factors were applied. Although considerable progress has been achieved to develop differentiation strategies and scaffold-based culture techniques for adult mesenchymal stem cells, the extent of differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells in this study and their capacity for cartilage synthesis fell considerably short of those of fetal chondrocytes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107: 393,401. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]