Biochemical Disturbances (biochemical + disturbance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Microcystin extracts induce ultrastructural damage and biochemical disturbance in male rabbit testis

Ying Liu
Abstract In the present research, the changes of ultrastructures and biochemical index in rabbit testis were examined after i.p. injection with 12.5 ,g/kg microcystin (MC) extracts. Ultrastructural observation showed widened intercellular junction, distention of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. All these changes appeared at 1, 3, and 12 h, but recovered finally. In biochemical analyses, the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and H2O2 increased significantly at 1 h, indicating MC-caused oxidative stress. Finally, H2O2 decreased to the normal levels, while MDA remained at high levels. The antioxidative enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST) and antioxidants (GSH) also increased rapidly at 1 h, demonstrating a quick response of the defense systems to the oxidative stress. Finally, the activity of CAT, SOD, and GPX recovered to the normal level, while the activity of GST and the concentration of GSH remained at a high level. This suggests that the importance of MCs detoxification by GST via GSH, and the testis of rabbit contained abundant GSH. The final recovery of ultrastructure and some biochemical indexes indicates that the defense systems finally succeeded in protecting the testis against oxidative damage. In conclusion, these results indicate that the MCs are toxic to the male rabbit reproductive system and the mechanism underlying this toxicity might to be the oxidative stress caused by MCs. Although the negative effects of MCs can be overcome by the antioxidant system of testis in this study, the potential reproductive risks of MCs should not be neglected because of their wide occurrence. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 2010. [source]

Cigarette smoking, endothelial injury and cardiovascular disease

Michael Pittilo
Despite the fact that the epidemiological evidence linking cigarette smoking with cardiovascular disease is overwhelming, the precise components of cigarette smoke responsible for this relationship and the mechanisms by which they exert their effect have not yet been elucidated. There are however, some promising pointers as a result of recent developments and this review concentrates on new evidence since earlier reviews of this topic. It is now known that the endothelium has a vastly more important role than was ever thought to be the case a decade ago. Its role in health and disease is increasingly understood, as is the relationship between endothelial injury and the development of atherosclerosis. There is considerable evidence that cigarette smoking can result in both morphological and biochemical disturbances to the endothelium both in vivo and in cell culture systems. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture and only a few components have been extensively studied. Nicotine and carbon monoxide are much less damaging than is whole smoke. However the free radical components of cigarette smoke have been shown to cause damage in model systems. Further work will be necessary to consolidate the evidence base but the data reported in this review suggest that the free radical components of cigarette smoke may be responsible for the morphological and functional damage to endothelium that has been observed in model systems. [source]

Nutritional rickets and z scores for height in the United Arab Emirates: To D or not to D?

Jaishen Rajah
Abstract Background: Vitamin D deficiency is still prevalent worldwide, including the Middle East. A cohort of patients with nutritional rickets was treated with vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) alone. After this intervention, patients were followed to document changes in z scores for height after treatment. The secondary aim was to determine the proportion of affected children who had vitamin D deficiency or calcium deficiency. Methods: Z score for height was calculated as the difference between the observed value and the median value, divided by the SD of the population. Z scores were compared in patients before and after treatment. Results: The improvement in z score after treatment was 0.86 0.95. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference was 1.32,0.40 (t = 3.95, P < 0.001). With a diagnostic cut-off for 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) deficiency of <25 nmol/L, only half were diagnosed with severe vitamin D deficiency. The remaining patients had presumable calcium deficiency. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was negatively correlated to z scores, implying that higher ALP concentrations predicted severe bone disease (lower z scores). The variables 25D and age were moderately and positively correlated (Pearson's r = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.15,0.84; P = 0.01), indicating that younger infants had the lowest 25D levels. Conclusion: Vitamin D alone was efficient in resolving radiological and biochemical disturbances as well as improving z scores for height in a cohort of children with nutritional rickets, which included patients with 25D deficiency as well as calcium deficiency. The results support the hypothesis of the interplay and continuum of 25D deficiency and calcium deficiency in the pathogenesis of rickets. [source]

Tumour lysis syndrome: an unusual presentation

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 10 2010
E. A. Chubb
Summary We report a case of spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome that developed postoperatively in a patient with undiagnosed Burkitt's lymphoma. The former diagnosis was made, unusually, following the development of white emulsion-like urine in the catheter bag whilst the patient was being managed in the intensive care unit. After laboratory analysis, the urine was found to contain large quantities of uric acid crystals which were the key to the prompt diagnosis. Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome is rare and this case highlights the difficulties in making an early diagnosis when the presence of a predisposing tumour has not yet been identified. Untreated tumour lysis syndrome can be fatal due to severe biochemical disturbances causing cardiac dysfunction and multi-organ failure. Early recognition and treatment are crucial to prevent morbidity and mortality. The unusual presentation of this case in association with an undiagnosed Burkitt's lymphoma emphasises how vigilant anaesthetists and intensivists must be in recognising this potentially life-threatening condition. We believe that the triggering factor in this case was laparotomy and handling of the tumour. [source]