Biochemical Components (biochemical + component)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Temporal variation of energy reserves in mayfly nymphs (Hexagenia spp.) from Lake St Clair and western Lake Erie

J.F. Cavaletto
Summary 1. We analysed changes in energy reserves (lipid and glycogen) and length,weight relationships of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) in 1997,99 to compare an established population in Lake St Clair with a recovering population in western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. In addition, we measured changes in water temperature and potential food in both water columns and sediments. 2. Although overall mean values of lipid and glycogen levels of Hexagenia nymphs from Lake St Clair and western Lake Erie were not significantly different, there were differences in seasonal patterns between the two lakes. In Lake St Clair, levels were highest in early spring, declined throughout the year, and reached their lowest levels in fall during all 3 years of study. In contrast, levels in western Lake Erie were lower in spring, increased to a maximum in summer, then declined in fall. Seasonal patterns in length,weight relationships were similar to those for lipid and glycogen. 3. Total lipid as a percentage of dry weight did not increase with developmental stage of nymphs until just prior to metamorphosis and emergence from water. However, the major reserve lipid, triacylglycerols, increased systematically with development stage. In the final stage of development, triacylglycerols declined, probably as a result of energy consumption and its conversion to other biochemical components for metamorphosis and reproduction. 4. Indicators of potential food (algal fluorescence in the water column and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a/phaeophytin ratio in sediments) suggest that Hexagenia in Lake St Clair have a food source that is benthic based, especially in early spring, whereas in western Lake Erie nymphs have a food source that is water column based and settles to the lake bottom during late spring and summer. [source]

Altered aquaporin 9 expression and localization in human hepatocellular carcinoma

HPB, Issue 1 2009
Srikanth Padma
Abstract Background:, In addition to the biochemical components secreted in bile, aquaporin (AQP) water channels exist in hepatocyte membranes to form conduits for water movement between the sinusoid and the bile canaliculus. The aim of the current study was to analyse AQP 9 expression and localization in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-tumourigenic liver (NTL) tissue from patients undergoing hepatic resection. Methods:, Archived tissue from 17 patients was sectioned and analysis performed using an antibody raised against AQP 9. Slides were blind-scored to determine AQP 9 distribution within HCC and NTL tissue. Results:, Aquaporin 9 was predominantly expressed in the membranes of hepatocytes and demonstrated zonal distribution relative to hepatic sinusoid structure in normal liver. In HCC arising in the absence of cirrhosis AQP 9 remained membrane-localized with zonal distribution in the majority of NTL. By contrast, AQP 9 expression was significantly decreased in the HCC mass vs. pair-matched NTL. In HCC in the presence of cirrhosis, NTL was characterized by extensive AQP 9 staining in the membrane in the absence of zonal distribution and AQP 9 staining in NTL was significantly greater than that observed in the tumour mass. Conclusions:, These data demonstrate that human HCC is characterized by altered AQP 9 expression and AQP 9 localization in the NTL mass is dependent on underlying liver pathology. Given the central role of AQPs in normal liver function and the potential role of AQPs during transformation and progression, these data may prove valuable in future diagnostic and/or therapeutic strategies. [source]

Correlation between the high expression of C/EBP, protein in F442A cells and their relative resistance to antiadipogenic action of TCDD in comparison to 3T3-L1 cells

Phillip C. C. Liu
Abstract We compared the ability of two clonally derived murine preadipocyte cell lines, 3T3-L1(L1) and 3T3-F442A (F442A), to differentiate after treatment by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD), and found that the former cell line was clearly suppressed by TCDD but the latter was not. It was initially postulated that the easiest way to explain the lack of response to TCDD in F442A cells could be an alteration in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) functionality. This hypothesis was tested first, but no differences were found in the levels or functions of AhR. To find an alternate explanation for such a differential effect of TCDD, we tested the action of several diagnostic agents on the process of adipocyte differentiation of these two cells. No differences were found between these two lines of cells in the susceptibility to the antiadipogenic action of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), or to TNF,, indicating that the basic biochemical components engaged in the antiadipogenic actions of these agents in these two cell lines are similar. In contrast, F442A cells were found to be more resistant to the antiadipogenic action of EGF or TGF, than L1 cells which were tested side by side. Based on the knowledge that TNF, preferentially affects C/EBP, and that TGF, specifically controls C/EBP, and , in their antiadipogenic action, we hypothesized that the major cause for the differential response of these two similar cell lines could be the insensitivity of C/EBP, and/or , of F442A cells to the action of TCDD. We could obtain supporting data for this hypothesis, showing that in F442A cells, the level of C/EBP, is already high even before the addition of adipocyte differentiation factors and that TCDD did not cause any significant changes in the titer of C/EBP,. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 16:70,83, 2002; Published online in Wiley Interscience ( DOI 10.1002/jbt.10020 [source]

Biochemical, histological and behavioural aspects of visual function during early development of rainbow trout

P. S. M. Carvalho
Retinal structure and concentration of retinoids involved in phototransduction changed during early development of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, correlating with improvements in visual function. A test chamber was used to evaluate the presence of optokinetic or optomotor responses and to assess the functionality of the integrated cellular, physiological and biochemical components of the visual system. The results indicated that in rainbow trout optomotor responses start at 10 days post-hatch, and demonstrated for the first time that increases in acuity, sensitivity to low light as well as in motion detection abilities occur from this stage until exogenous feeding starts. The structure of retinal cells such as cone ellipsoids increased in length as photopic visual acuity improved, and rod densities increased concurrently with improvements in scotopic thresholds (2·2 log10 units). An increase in the concentrations of the chromophore all-trans-retinal correlated with improvements of all behavioural measures of visual function during the same developmental phase. [source]

Tests for cycling in a signalling pathway

T. G. Müller
Summary., Cellular signalling pathways, mediating receptor activity to nuclear gene activation, are generally regarded as feed forward cascades. We analyse measured data of a partially observed signalling pathway and address the question of possible feed-back cycling of involved biochemical components between the nucleus and cytoplasm. First we address the question of cycling in general, starting from basic assumptions about the system. We reformulate the problem as a statistical test leading to likelihood ratio tests under non-standard conditions. We find that the modelling approach without cycling is rejected. Afterwards, to differentiate two different transport mechanisms within the nucleus, we derive the appropriate dynamical models which lead to two systems of ordinary differential equations. To compare both models we apply a statistical testing procedure that is based on bootstrap distributions. We find that one of both transport mechanisms leads to a dynamical model which is rejected whereas the other model is satisfactory. [source]

High-resolution magic angle spinning MRS of breast cancer tissue

Beathe Sitter
Abstract High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS) may develop into a new diagnostic tool for studying intact tissue samples, and several types of cancer have been investigated with promising results. In this study HR MAS spectra of breast cancer tissue from 10 patients have been compared to conventional high-resolution spectra of perchloric acid extracts of the same tissue type. The HR MAS spectra show resolution comparable to spectra of extracts, and two-dimensional techniques lead to identification of a majority of the constituents. More than 30 different metabolites have been detected and assigned. To our knowledge this is the most detailed assignment of biochemical components in intact human breast tissue. The spectra of intact breast cancer tissue differ from perchloric acid extracts by the presence of lipids and fewer signals in the low field region. HR MAS analysis of intact breast tissue specimens is a rapid method, providing spectra with resolution where relative quantification of the majority of the detected metabolites is possible. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Off-line pyrolysis and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of lignin moieties: a new method for determining the fate of lignin residues in soil,

Jennifer A. J. Dungait
Off-line pyrolysis was used to liberate lignin moieties from dung and soil and, after trimethylsilylation, the ,13C values of these derivatives were determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Initial ,13C values determined for 4-vinylphenol, syringol, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-acetylsyringol, 4-vinylsyringol, 4-(2- Z -propenyl)syringol, 4-(2- E -propenyl)syringol and 4-(2-propenone)syringol pyrolysis products of the lignin polyphenol structure from C4 (,13Cbulk,=,,12.6%) and C3 (,13Cbulk,=,,30.1,) dung confirmed the robust and reproducible nature of the off-line preparation technique. C4 dung was used as a treatment in a randomised field experiment to assess the short-term sequestration of dung carbon in managed grasslands. Since lignin was on average 3.5, depleted in 13C compared with bulk dung ,13C values, this may have resulted in an under-estimation of dung C incorporation based on bulk ,13C values. Therefore, an investigation of the compound-specific ,13C values of dung-derived lignin moieties extracted from soils sampled up to 372 days was undertaken. ,13C values between lignin moieties extracted from treated and untreated soils showed that dung-derived lignin was not especially resistant to degradation and suggested that individual moieties of the lignin macromolecule must: (i) move into soil, (ii) be degraded, or (iii) be transformed diagenetically at different rates. This adds to a gathering body of evidence that lignin is not particularly stable in soils, which has considerable significance for the perceived role of different biochemical components in the cycling of C in soils. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Factors Affecting the Quality of Cryopreserved Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Bull Spermatozoa

SMH Andrabi
Contents Storage of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semen in the cryopreserved state is discussed in this article. Fertility rate in buffalo following artificial insemination with frozen,thawed semen is reviewed. To better understand the freezability of bubaline spermatozoa, the available data on biochemical components and the activity of specific enzymes of semen/spermatozoa are given. Moreover, the major factors that may influence the post-thaw viability and fertility of buffalo spermatozoa are examined in detail. In addition, suggestions for improvement in cryogenic procedures for buffalo spermatozoa are also given. [source]